Advertisement

Ion Implantation in Metals

  • G. Dearnaley

Abstract

For several years now it has become obvious to all that ion implantation provides a versatile and controllable technique for the doping of semiconductors. Indeed, so important and successful has ion implantation proved in silicon device technology that the term has become almost synonymous with this field of semiconductor research and development. This point of view does less than justice to the scientific and economic importance of other branches of surface materials technology, where the ability to introduce controlled amounts of specific impurities into a solid can be valuable.

Keywords

Anodic Oxide Film Yorktown Height Wear Parameter Friction Groove Lateral Compressive Stress 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Trillat, J.J. and Haymann, P. (1961) in “Le Bombardement Ionique. Theories et applications”, Ed. J.J. Trillot (Editions du C.R.N.S., Paris) p.25.Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    Thompson, M.W. (1970) Proc. European Conf. on Ion Implantation, Reading (Peter Peregrines Ltd., Stevenage, England) p.109.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Crowder, B.L. and Tan, S.I. (1971) IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin 14, No. 1, 198.Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    International Conference on Applications of Ion Beams to Metals, Albuquerque, N.M., U.S.A., October 1973, edited by Picraux, S.T., EerNisse, E.P. and Vook, F. (Plenum Press, N.Y., 1974).Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    Bowden, P.P. and Tabor, D. “The Friction and Lubrication of Solids”. Oxford Univ. Press Part I (1950), Part II (1964).Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    Archard, J.F. J. Appl. Phys. 24, 981 (1953).Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    Wakelin, R.J., Am. Rev. Mat. Sci. 4, 221 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. (8).
    Hartley, N.E.W., Dearnaley, G. and Turner, J.F., Proc. 3rd International Conf. on Ion Implantation, Yorktown Heights, N-Y., U.S.A., December 1972, edited by Crowder, B.L. (Plenum Press, N.Y. 1974).Google Scholar
  9. (9).
    Hartley, N.E.W., Swindlehurst, W.E., Dearnaley, G. and Turner, J.F. J. Mat. Sci. 8, 900 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    Hartley, N.E.W., Dearnaley, G., Turner, J.F. and Saunders, J. Proc. Int. Conf. on Applications of Ion Beams to Metals. Albuquerque N.M., October 1973 (Plenum Press, N.Y. 1974) p.123.Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    Cookson, J.A., Ferguson, A.T.G. and Pilling, F.D. J. Radio-analytical Chem. 12, 39 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    Hartley, N.E.W. J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 1975 (to be published).Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    Eeinisse, E.P. Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 581 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. (14).
    Kass, S. “Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys” ASTM Publication No. 368, p.3 (1964).Google Scholar
  15. (15).
    Hauffe, K. “Oxidation of Metals” 1965 (Plenum Press, N.Y.)Google Scholar
  16. (16).
    Harris, R.W., Phillips, G.C. and C. Miller Jones, Nucl. Phys. 38, 259 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. (17).
    Dearnaley, G., Proc. Int. Conf. on Applications of Ion Beams to Metals, Albuquerque N.M., October 1973 (Plenum Press, N.I. 1974) p.63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. (18).
    Dearnaley, G., Goode, P.D., Miller, W.S. and Turner, J.F. Proc. Int. Conf. on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors and Other Materials, Yorktown Heights, N.Y. December 1972 (Plenum Press, N.Y. 1973) p.405.Google Scholar
  19. (19).
    Amsel, G. et al. Nucl. Instr. & Methods, 92, 481 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. (20).
    Dearnaley, G., Garnsey, R., Hartley, N.E.W., Turner, J.F. and Woolsey, I.S., J. Vac. Sci. & Tech. 12, Jan/Feb. 1975 (to be published).Google Scholar
  21. (21).
    Pauling, L. “The Nature of the Chemical Bond” 1945 (Cornell Univ. Press) p.58.Google Scholar
  22. (22).
    Suffield, N.W. and Dearnaley, G. Proc. Conf. on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors & Other Materials, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., December 1972 (Plenum Press, N.Y. 1973) p.541.Google Scholar
  23. (23).
    Wood, G.C., Oxidation of Metals, 2, No. 1, 11 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. (24).
    Weidman, L., M.Sc. Thesis, Brighton Polytechnic (1973).Google Scholar
  25. (25).
    Wanklyn, J. “Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys” ASTM Publication No. 368, p.58 (1964).Google Scholar
  26. (26).
    Pemsler, J.P., J. Electrochem. Soc. 105, 315 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. (27).
    Parfenov, B.G., Gerasimov, V.V., Venediktova, G.I. — “Corrosion of Zirconium and Zic. Alloys” — Israel program for scientific translations (1969), U.S. Dept. of Commerce.Google Scholar
  28. (28).
    Cox, B., J. Nucl. Mat. 29, 50 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. (29).
    Cox, B. and Pemsler, J.P., J. Nucl. Mat. 28, 73 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. (30).
    Andersson, S. and Wadsley, A.D. Nature 211, 381 (1966).Google Scholar
  31. (31).
    Steele, B.C.H. “Solid State Chemistry” Ed. Roberts, L.E.J. (Butterworths, London) p.117 (1972).Google Scholar
  32. (32).
    Spitznagel, J.A., Fleischer, L.R. and Choyke, W.J. Proc. Int. Conf. on Applications of Ion Beams to Metals, Albuquerque, N.M., October 1973 (Plenum Press, N.Y. 1974) p.87.Google Scholar
  33. (33).
    EerNisse, E.P. see comment during discussion following ref. 32.Google Scholar
  34. (34).
    Butcher, D.N., M.Sc. Thesis, Brighton Polytechnic (1974).Google Scholar
  35. (35).
    Towler, C., Collins, R.A. and Dearnaley, G. J. Vac. Sci. & Tech. (to be published) 1975.Google Scholar
  36. (36).
    Kubaschewski, O. and Hopkins, B.E. “Oxidation of Metals and Alloys” (Butterworths, London) 1953.Google Scholar
  37. (37).
    Gleaves, G.L. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Lancaster, (1973).Google Scholar
  38. (38).
    Mackintosh, W.D. and Brown, F. Proc. Int. Conf. on Applications of Ion Beams to Metals, Albuquerque, N.M. October 1973 (Plenum Press, N.Y. 1974) p.111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. (39).
    Rickards, J. and Dearnaley, G. Proc. Int. Conf. on Applications of Ion Beams to Metals. Albuquerque, N.M. October 1973 (Plenum Press, N.Y. 1974) p.101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. (40).
    Ashworth, V., Carter, G., Grant, W.A., Jones, P.D., Proctor, R.P.M., Sayegh, N.N. and Street, A.D. Proc. Int. Conf. on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors and Other Materials, Yorktown Heights, N.Y. December 1972 (Plenum Press, N.Y., 1973) p.443.Google Scholar
  41. (41).
    Ashworth, V., Proctor, R.P.M., Wellington, T.C., Baxter, D. and Grant, W.A. Proc. Int. Conf. on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors & Other Materials, Osaka, August 1974 (to be published).Google Scholar
  42. (42).
    Antill, J.E. and Peakall, K.A., J. Iron & Steel Inst. 205, 1136 (1967).Google Scholar
  43. (43).
    Antill, J.E., Bennett, M.J., Dearnaley, G., Fern, F.H., Goode, P.D. and Turner, J.F., Proc. Int. Conf. on Ion Implantation of Semiconductors & Other Materials, Yorktown Heights, N.Y. December 1972 (Plenum Press, N.Y. 1973) p.415.Google Scholar
  44. (44).
    Peplow, D., Dearnaley, G., Hartley, N.E.W. and Poole, M.J. (to be published) 1975.Google Scholar
  45. (45).
    Grenness, M., Thompson, M.W. and Calm, R.W. J. Appl. Electro-chem. 4, 211 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. (46).
    Wolf, G. Proc. Int. Conf. on Ion Implantation of Semiconductors and Other Materials, Osaka, August 1974 (to be published).Google Scholar
  47. (47).
    Thackery, P.A. and Nelson, R.S. Phil. Mag. 19, 169 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. (48).
    Poate, J.M., DeBonte, W. J., Augustyniak, W.M. and Borders, J.A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 698 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. (49).
    Sood, D.K. and Dearnalev, G., J. Vac. Sei & Tech. 12, no. 1. (1975) (to be published).Google Scholar
  50. (50).
    Freeman, J.H. et al., Proc. Int. Conf. on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors & Other Materials, Osaka, August 1974 (to be published).Google Scholar
  51. (51).
    Freeman. J.H. (priv. comm.).Google Scholar
  52. (52).
    Mattox, D. Proc. 6th International Vacuum Symposium, Kyoto 1974 (to be published in Jap. J. of Appl. Phys., Supplement 2, 1974).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Dearnaley
    • 1
  1. 1.AEREHarwellEngland

Personalised recommendations