Advertisement

Lattice Location of Impurities in Metals and Semiconductors

  • S. T. Picraux

Abstract

Many important physical properties of materials are controlled by the crystallographic location of impurities in solids. In addition, the interpretation of solid state experiments or the study of solids by theoretical calculations often requires a knowledge of the lattice location of impurities. Examples of experiments include spin resonance studies such as NMR and EPR, hyperfine methods such as Mossbauer effect and perturbed angular correlation, and internal friction measurements. Theoretical examples would include band theory calculations of electronic, optical and other properties due to the presence of impurities. While the interest in impurity location has been strong for many different types of systems, there have been few techniques available for direct location determination.

Keywords

Angular Distribution Impurity Atom Lattice Location Substitutional Site Minimum Yield 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D. S. Gemmell, Rev. Mod. Phys. 46, 129 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Channeling: Theory, Observation and Applications, ed. by D. V. Morgan (John Wiley, 1973).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. A. Davies, ibid., p. 391.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. M. Gibson and M. Maruyama, ibid., p. 349.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. Domeij, Nud. Instrum. Methods 38, 207 (1965).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. Uggerhoj and J. U. Andersen, Can. J. Phys. 46, 543 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Matzke and J. A. Davies, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 805 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Bogh and J. L. Whitton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 553 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Laegsgaard, J. U. Andersen, and L. C. Feldman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1206 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. A. Davies, L. Eriksson, N.G.E. Johansson, and I. V. Mitchell, Phys. Rev. 181, 548 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. Eriksson, G. R. Bellavance, and J. A. Davies, Radiation Effects 1, 71 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Lindhard, K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Mat.-Fys. Medd. 34, No. 14 (1965).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. B. Alexander, P. T. Callaghan, and J. M. Poate, Phys. Rev. B9, 3022 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Van Vliet, Radiation Effects 10, 137 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. H. Barrett, Phys. Rev. B3, 1527 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Abel, G. Amsel, M. Bruneaux, and C. Cohen (private communication).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Ellison, University of New Mexico, Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics Technical Reports #300 and #305, Sept. 1974.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Y. Hashimoto, J. H. Barrett, and W. M. Gibson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 995 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Atomic Collisions in Solids, ed. by S. Datz, B. R. Appleton, and C.D. Moak (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1974) in press.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    This goniometer was built from design of W. Augustyniak with modifications by J. Smalley.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    J. W. Mayer, L. Eriksson, and J. A. Davies, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors (Academic Press, N. Y., 1970).Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    J. U. Andersen and L. C. Feldman, Phys. Rev. EL, 2063 (1970).Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    D. V. Morgan and D. Van Vliet, Radiation Effects 12, 203 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    J. U. Andersen, K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Mat.-Fys. Medd. 36, No. 7 (1967).Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Y. Yokoyama, Masters Thesis, Nagoya University (1974).Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    R. B. Alexander and J. M. Poate, Radiation Effects 12, 211 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    J. M. Poate, J. A. Borders, W. J. DeBonte and W. M. Augustyniak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 698 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    J. A. Borders, J. M. Poate, and W. J. DeBonte, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 19, 257 (1974) and private communication.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    M. Takai, K. Gamo, K. Masuda, and S. Namba, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 12, 1926 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    J. L. Merz, L. C. Feldman, D. W. Mingay, and W. M. Augustyniak, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors, ed. by I. Ruge and J. Graul (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1971), p. 182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    H. deWaard and L. C. Feldman, Applications of Ion Beams to Metals, ed. by S. T. Picraux, E. P. Eernisse, and F. L. Vook (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1974 p. 317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    J. A. Davies, European Conference on Ion Implantation (Peregrinus, Stevenage, England, 1970), p. 172.Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    S. T. Picraux, W. L. Brown, and W. M. Gibson, Phys. Rev. B6, 1382 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    D. Sigurd and K. Bjorkqvist, Radiation Effects 17, 209 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    K. Tachibana, Radiation Effects 19, 135 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35.
    H. E. Roosendaal, W. H. Kool, W. F. Van Der Weg, and J. B. Sanders, Radiation Effects 22, 89 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    L. C. Feldman and B. R. Appleton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 305 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    J. U. Andersen, O. Andreasen, J. A. Davies, and E. Uggerhoj, Radiation Effects 7, 25 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    J. U. Andersen, E. Laegsgaard, and L. C. Feldman, Radiation Effects 12, 219 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    S. T. Picraux and F. L. Vook, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1216 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    S. T. Picraux and F. L. Vook, Ion Implantation: Science and Technology, ed. by S. Namba (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1975) in press.Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    R. B. Alexander and P. T. Callaghan, Phys. Lett. 45A, 379 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    S. T. Picraux and F. L. Vook, Applications of Ion Beams to Metals, ed. by S. T. Picraux, E. P. Eernisse, and F. L. Vook (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1974), P. 407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    G. Delia Mea, A. V. Drigo, S. Lo. Russo, P. Mazzoldi, S. Yamaguchi, G. G. Bentini, A. Desalvo, and R. Rosa, Phys. Rev. B10, 1836 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    R. Hellborg, Physica Scripta 5, 219 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    G. J. Thomas and S. T. Picraux, Applications of Ion Beams to Metals, ed. by S. T. Picraux, E. P. Eernisse, and F. L. Vook (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1974), p. 257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    M. L. Swanson, F. Maury, and A. F. Quenneville, ibid., p. 393 and Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 1057 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    J. Haskell, E. Rimini, and J. W. Mayer, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3425 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    E. N. Kauftaann, R. S. Raghaven, P. Raghaven, E. J. Ansaldo, and R. A. Naumann, Phys. Rev. B (to be published).Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    E. N. Kaufmann, K. Krien, J. C. Soares, and K. Freitag (to be published).Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    M. L. Swans on and F. Maury, Can. J. Phys. (to be published).Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    D. K. Sood and G. Dearnaley, AERE Report, Harwell (to be published).Google Scholar
  53. 52.
    R. B. Alexander and R. J. Petty, Atomic Collisions in Solids, ed. by S. Datz, B. R. Appleton, and C.D. Moak (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1974 in press.Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    G. Delia Mea, A. V. Drigo, S. Lo. Russo, P. Mazzoldi, S. Yamaguchi, G. G. Bentini, A. Desalvo, and R. Rosa, Atomic Collisions in Solids, ed. by S. Datz, B. R. Appleton, and C.D. Moak (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1974, p. 791.Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    E. N. Kaufmann, P. Raghaven, R. S. Raghaven, K. Krien, E. J. Ansaldo, and R. A. Naumann, Applications of Ion Beams to Metals, ed. by S. T. Picraux, E. P. Eernisse, and F. L. Vook (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1974) P. 379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    G. Linker, M. Gettings, and O. Meyer, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors and Other Materials, ed. by B. L. Crowder (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1973), p. 465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    L. C. Feldman, E. N. Kaufmann, J. M. Poate, and W. M. Augustyniak, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors and Other Materials, ed. by B. L. Crowder (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1973), P. 491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    J. R. MacDonald, E. N. Kaufmann, W. Darcey, and R. Hensler, Radiation Effects (to be published).Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    J. R. MacDonald, R. A. Boie, W. Darcey, and R. Hensler, (to be published).Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    R. A. Boie, J. R. MacDonald, and J. M. Poate (to be published).Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    P. T. Callaghan, N. J. Stone, and B. G. Turrell, Phys. Rev. B10, 1075 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    E. Bogh, Proc. R. Soc. A 311, 35 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    R. B. Alexander, N. J. Stone, D. V. Morgan, and J. M. Poate, Hyperfine Interactions in Excited Nuclei, ed. by G. Goldring and R. Kalish (Gordon and Breach, N. Y., 1971), p. 229.Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    L. C. Feldman and D. Murnick, Phys. Rev. B5, 1 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    F. Abel, M. Bruneaux, C. Cohen, H. Bernas, J. Chaumont, and L. Thome, Solid State Commun. 12, 113 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    R. B. Alexander, E. J. Ansaldo, B. I. Deutch, J. Geliert, and L. C. Feldman, Applications of Ion Beams to Metals, ed. by S. T. Picraux, E. P. Eernisse, and F. L. Vook (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1974, P. 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    L. C. Feldman, E. N. Kaufmann, D. W. Mingay, and W. M. Augustyniak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1145 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    G. A. Stephens, E. Robinson, and J. S. Williams, Ion Implantation: Science and Technology, ed. by S. Namba (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1975) in press.Google Scholar
  69. 68.
    E. N. Kaufmann, J. M. Poate, and W. M. Augustyniak, Phys. Rev. B7, 951 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    H. Fischer, R. Sizmann, and F. Bell, Z. Phys. 224, 135 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    D. K. Sood and G. Dearnaley, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 445 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    J. A. Borders and J. M. Poate (to be published).Google Scholar
  73. 72.
    M. L. Swanson, A. F. Quenneville, and F. Maury (to be published).Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    M. L. Swans on, A. F. Quenneville, and F. Maury, Phys. Status Solidi (to be published).Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    M. L. Swanson and L. M. Howe, J. Nucl. Mater, 54, 155 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    H. D. Carstanjen and R. Sizmann, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 72, 1223 (1972)Google Scholar
  77. 75.
    H. D. Carstanjen and R. Sizmann, Phys. Lett. 40A, 93 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 76.
    G. A. Iferov, G. P. Pokhil, and A. F. Tulinov, JETP Lett. 5, 250 (1967).Google Scholar
  79. 77.
    J. P. Biersack and D. Fink, Applications of Ion Beams to Metals, ed. by S. T. Picraux, E. P. Eernisse, and F. L. Vook (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1974, P. 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 78.
    P. P. Matyash, N. A. Skakun, and N. P. Dikii, JETP Lett, 19, 18 (1974.ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 79.
    J. W. Miller, D. S. Gemmell, R. E. Holland, J. C. Poizat, J. N. Worthington, and R. E. Loess, Phys. Rev. B11, 990 (1975).ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. 80.
    P. N. Tomlinson and A. Howie, Phys. Lett. 27A, 491 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. 81.
    W. M. Gibson, F. W. Martin, R. Stensgaard, F. P. Jensen, N. I. Meyer, G. Golster, A. Johansen, and J. S. Olsen, Can. J. Phys. 46, 675 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 82.
    J. A. Davies, J. Denhartog, L. Eriksson, and J. W. Mayer, Can. J. Phys. 45, 4053 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 83.
    J. C. North and W. M. Gibson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 126 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 84.
    J. C. North and W. M. Gibson, Radiation Effects 6, 199 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    G. Fladda, K. Bjorkqvist, L. Eriksson, and D. Sigurd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 313 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 86.
    J. A. Cairns, R. S. Nelson, and J. S. Briggs, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors, ed. by I. Ruge and J. Graul (Springer-Verlag Berlin, 1971), p. 299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 87.
    Y. Akasaka and K. Horie, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors and Other Materials, ed. by B. L. Crowder (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1973), P. 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 88.
    Y. Akasaka and K. Horie, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3372 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 89.
    J. B. Mitchell, P. P. Pronko, J. Shewchun, D. A. Thompson and J. A. Davies, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 332 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    N. A. Skakun, N. P. Dikii, P. P. Matyash, and V. M. Korol, Sov. Phys.-Solid State 15, 123 (1973).Google Scholar
  93. 91.
    C. R. Allen and C. R. Thomas, Electron. Lett. 9, 475 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 92.
    F. Fujimoto, K. Komaki, M. Watanabe and T. Yonezawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 248 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    J- Gyulai, O. Meyer, R. D. Pashley, and J. W. Mayer, Radiation Effects 7, 17 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 94.
    O. Meyer, N. G. E. Johansson, S. T. Picraux and J. W. Mayer, Solid State Commun. 8, 529 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 95.
    J. W. Mayer, J. A. Davies, and L. Eriksson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 365 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 96.
    J. W. Mayer, L. Eriksson, S. T. Picraux, and J. A. Davies, Can. J. Phys. 46, 663 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 97.
    L. Eriksson, J. A. Davies, and J. W. Mayer, Radiation Effects in Semiconductors, ed. by F. L. Vook (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1968), p. 398.Google Scholar
  100. 98.
    L. Eriksson, J. A. Davies, N. G. E. Johansson and J. W. Mayer, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 842 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    L. Eriksson, G. Fladda, and K. Bjorkqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett, 14 195 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 100.
    W. F. van der Weg, J. A. den Boer, F. W. Saris, and D. Onderdebinden, European Conference on Ion Implantation (Peregrinus, Stevenage, England, 1970), p. 198.Google Scholar
  103. 101.
    K. Masuda, K. Gamo, A. Imada, and S. Namba, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors, ed. by I. Ruge and J. Graul (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1971), p. 455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 102.
    S. Chou, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University (1971) (unpublished) and S. Chou, L. A. Davidson, and J. F. Gibbons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 23 (1970).Google Scholar
  105. 103.
    F. Fujimoto, K. Komaki, M. Ishii, H. Nakayama, and K. Hisatake, Phys. Status Solidi A12, K7 (1972);ADSGoogle Scholar
  106. F. Fujimoto, K. Komaki, K. Hisatake and H. Nakayama, Phys. Status Solidi A5, 737 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. 1044.
    O. Meyer and J. W. Mayer, Solid State Electron. 13 1357 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 105.
    B. Domeij, G. Fladda, and N.G.E. Johansson, Radiation Effects 6, 155 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 106.
    S. T. Picraux, N.G.E. Johansson, and J. W. Mayer, Semiconductor Silicon, ed. by R. R. Haberecht and E. L. Kern;(Electrochem. Soc, N. Y., 1969), P. 422.Google Scholar
  110. 107.
    J. A. Davies, L. Eriksson, and J. W. Mayer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 255 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 108.
    Y. Akasaka, K. Horie, G. Nakamura, K. Tsukamoto, and Y. Yukimoto, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 13, 1533 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 109.
    G. Weyer, J. U. Andersen, B. I. Deutch, J. A. Golovchenko, and A. Nylandsted-Larsen (to be published); G. Weyer, B. I. Deutch, A. Nylandsted-Larsen, and J. U. Andersen, Hyperfine Interactions Studied in Nuclear Reactions and Decay, ed. by E. Karlsson and R. Wappling (to be published, Sweden, 1974).Google Scholar
  113. 110.
    L. Eriksson, J. A. Davies, J. Denhartog, J. W. Mayer, O. J. Marsh, and R. Mankarious, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 323 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 111.
    J. A. Cairns and R. S. Nelson, Phys. Lett. 27A, 14 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. 112.
    E. Bøgh, Interaction of Radiation with Solids, ed. by A. Bishay (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1967), p. 361.Google Scholar
  116. 113.
    E. Uggerhøj and J. U. Andersen, Can. J. Phys. 46, 543 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 114.
    F. H. Eisen and E. Uggerhoj, Radiation Effects 12, 233 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 115.
    F. Ho Eisen, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors, ed. by I. Ruge and J. Graul (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1971), p. 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 116.
    N. Lue, N. Matsunami, K. Morita, N. Itoh, M. Yoshida, and S. Hirota, Radiation Effects 14, 191 (1971).Google Scholar
  120. 117.
    G. Delia Mea, A. V. Drigo, P. Mazzoldi, G. Nardelli, and R. Zannoni, Radiation Effects 3, 259 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 118.
    G. Fladda, P. Mazzoldi, E. Rimini, D. Sigurd, and L. Eriksson, Radiation Effects 1, 249 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 119.
    L. Eriksson, G. R. Bellavance, and J. A. Davies, Radiation Effects 1, 72 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 120.
    J. p. Biersack and D. Fink, Atomic Collisions in Solids, ed. by S. Datz, B. R. Appleton, and C. D. Moak (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1974) in press.Google Scholar
  124. 120a.
    A. B. Campbell, J. B. Mitchell, J. Shewchun, D. A. Thompson and J. A. Davies, Can. J. Phys. 53 (1975)(in press).Google Scholar
  125. 121.
    J. F. Chemin, I. V. Mitchell, and F. W. Saris, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 537 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 122.
    K. Bjorkqvist, B. Domeij, L. Eriksson, G. Fladda, A. Fontell, and J. W. Mayer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 379 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 123.
    K. Bjorkqvist, D. Sigurd, G. Fladda, and G. Bjarnholt, Radiation Effects 6, 141 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 124.
    A. W. Tinsley, K. C. Jones, P.R.C. Stevens, G. G. George, and E. M. Gunnerson, European Conference on Ion Implantation (Peregrinus, Stevenage, England, 1970), p. 187.Google Scholar
  129. 125.
    A. B. Campbell, J. B. Mitchell, J. Shewchun, D. A. Thompson, and J. A. Davies, Ion Implantation: Science and Technology, ed. by S. Namba (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1975) in press.Google Scholar
  130. 126.
    R. R. Hart. H. L. Dunlap, and O. J. Marsh, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors, ed. by I. Ruge and J. Graul (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1971), p. 134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 127.
    L. C. Feldman, W. M. Augustyniak, and J. L. Merz, Radiation Effects 6, 293 (1970).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 128.
    G. Ilic, G. T. Ewan, and J. L. Whitton, Radiation Effects 18, 47 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 129.
    K. Gamo, M. Takai, M. S. Lin, K. Masuda, and S. Namba, Ion Implantation: Science and Technology, ed. by S. Namba (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1975) in press.Google Scholar
  134. 130.
    T. G. Finstad, S. L. Anderson, and T. Olsen, Phys. Status Solidi A25, 515 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. 131.
    K. Gamo, M. Takai, K. Masuda, S. Namba, Proc. of the 4th Conf. on Solid State Devices, Supplement to the J. of the Japan Soc. of Appl. Phys. 42, 130 (1973).Google Scholar
  136. 132.
    I. V. Mitchell, J. W. Mayer, J. K. Kung, and W. G. Spitzer, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3982 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 133.
    F. H. Eisen, J. S. Harris, B. Welch, R. D. Pashley, D. Sigurd, and J. W. Mayer, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors and Other Materials, ed. by B. L. Crowder (Plenum Press, N. Y., 1973), p. 631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 134.
    G. Langguth, E. Lang, and O. Meyer, Ion Implantation in Semiconductors, ed. by I. Ruge and J. Graul (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1971), p. 228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 135.
    W. Akutagawa, D. Turnbull, W. K. Chu, and J. W. Mayer, J. Phys. Chem. Solids (to be published).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. T. Picraux
    • 1
  1. 1.Sandia LaboratoriesAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations