Material Analysis by Nuclear Backscattering

  • James F. Ziegler
  • J. W. Mayer
  • B. M. Ullrich
  • Wei-Kan Chu


Historically, the first use of ion backscattering for material analysis was by Geiger and Marsden1 (1909), whose effects were explained by the Rutherford2 atomic model (1911). This was followed immediately by suggestions of ion channeling in single crystals by Stark and Wendt (1912). Recently, the most widely publicized example of nuclear backscattering was the first atomic compositional analysis of the moon by Surveyor 5 (1967). This first soft-landing package contained a radioactive source of 5MeV α-particles which were backscattered from the moon’s surface and provided information on the elemental composition of the moon’s surface.4,5


Energy Loss Material Analysis Depth Scale Differential Scattering Cross Section Backscattering Spectrum 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • James F. Ziegler
    • 1
  • J. W. Mayer
    • 2
  • B. M. Ullrich
    • 2
  • Wei-Kan Chu
    • 2
  1. 1.IBM - ResearchYorktown HeightsUSA
  2. 2.California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

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