Advertisement

Material Analysis by Nuclear Backscattering

  • James F. Ziegler
  • J. W. Mayer
  • B. M. Ullrich
  • Wei-Kan Chu

Abstract

Historically, the first use of ion backscattering for material analysis was by Geiger and Marsden1 (1909), whose effects were explained by the Rutherford2 atomic model (1911). This was followed immediately by suggestions of ion channeling in single crystals by Stark and Wendt (1912). Recently, the most widely publicized example of nuclear backscattering was the first atomic compositional analysis of the moon by Surveyor 5 (1967). This first soft-landing package contained a radioactive source of 5MeV α-particles which were backscattered from the moon’s surface and provided information on the elemental composition of the moon’s surface.4,5

Keywords

Energy Loss Material Analysis Depth Scale Differential Scattering Cross Section Backscattering Spectrum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. Geiger and E. Marsden, Proc. Roy. Soc, 82, 495 (1909).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. Rutherford, Phil. Mag., 21, 669 (1911).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Stark and G. Wendt, Ann. d. Phys., 38, 921 (1912).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Turkevich, K. Knolle, R. A. Emmert, W. A. Anderson, J. H. Patterson, and E. Franzgrote, Rev. of Sci. Inst., 37, 1681 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Turkevich, E. Franzgrote, and J. Patterson, Science, 158, 635 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. J. Kircher, J. W. Mayer, K. N. Tu, and J. F. Ziegler, Appl. Phys. Lett., 22, 81 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. F. Ziegler, J. W. Mayer, C. J. Kircher, and K. N. Tu, J. Appl. Phys., 44, 3851 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. F. Ziegler, J. E. E. Baglin, and A. Gangulee, Appl. Phys. Lett., 24, 36 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    “Ion Beam Surface Layer Analysis”, Ed. by J. W. Mayer and J. F. Ziegler, Elsevier Sequoia Co., Laussane, Switzerland (1974).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. F. Ziegler and W. K. Chu, Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, 13, 463 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. F. Ziegler and J.E.E. Baglin, J. Appl. Phys., 42, 2031 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. F. Ziegler and J.E.E. Baglin, J. Appl. Phys., 45, 1888 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. van Wijngaarden, B. Miremadi, and W. E. Baylis, Can. Jour. of Phys., 49, 2440 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    See references cited in the review article: R. E. Honig and W. L. Harrington, Thin Solid Films, 19, 43 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Peterson, P. A. Tore, O. Meyer, B. Sundquist, and A. Johansson, Thin Solid Films, 19, 157 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. R. Hart, H. L. Dunlap, A. J. Mohr, and O. J. Marsh, Thin Solid Films, 19, 137 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. F. Ziegler, W. K. Chu, J.S.-Y. Feng (to be published in 1975 in Appl. Phys. Lett.).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Behrisch and B.M.U. Scherzer, Thin Solid Films, 19, 247 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. K. Leung, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Kentucky, 1972 (unpublished).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Turos and Z. Wilhelmi, Nukleonika, 13, 975 (1968).Google Scholar
  21. 1.
    Proceedings of the conference on Ion Beam Surface Layer Analysis, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., June 1973; Thin Solid Films 19, 1–406 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 2.
    Proceedings of the conference on Applications of Ion Beams to Metals, Albuquerque, N.M., October 1973;(Plenum Press, New York) 1974. Eds. S.T. Picraux, E.P. EerNisse and F.L. Vook.Google Scholar
  23. 3.
    Proceedings of the conference on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors and Other Materials, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., December 1972; Ed. B.L. Crowder, (Plenum Press, New York) 1973.Google Scholar
  24. 4.
    “Channeling”, Edited by D.V. Morgan (J. Wiley and Sons, New York) 1974.Google Scholar
  25. 5.
    A.L. Turkevich, E.J. Franzgrote and J.H. Patterson, Science 165, 277 (1969).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 6.
    M. Peisach and D.O. Poole, in “Electron and Ion Beam Technology,” Edited by R. Bakish, AIME (Gordon and Breach, New York) Vol. 2, 1195 (1969).Google Scholar
  27. 7.
    L. Eriksson, G. Fladda and P.A. Johansson, International Meeting, “Chemical Analysis by Charged Particle Bombardment,” Namur, Sept. (1971).Google Scholar
  28. 8.
    P.A. Tove and W.K. Chu, private communication.Google Scholar
  29. 9.
    M. Guttmann, P.R. Krahe, F. Abel, G. Amsel, M. Bruneaux and C. Cohen, Scripta Metallurgica 5, 479 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 10.
    S. Rubin, T.O. Passell and L.E. Bailey, Anal. Chem. 29, 736 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 11.
    A. Turos, W.F. van der Weg, D. Sigurd and J.W. Mayer, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2777 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 12.
    W.K. Chu, M-A. Nicolet, J.W. Mayer and C. A. Evans, Jr., Anal. Chem. 46, 2136 (1974).Google Scholar
  33. 13.
    S.U. Campisano, G. Foti, F. Grasso and E. Rimini, Proc. Conf. on Low Temperature Diffusion and Applications to Thin Films, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., August 1974 (to be published, Plenum Press).Google Scholar
  34. 14.
    G. Ottaviani, D. Sigurd, V. Marrello and J.O. McCaldin, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 1730 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 15.
    W.K. Chu, J.W. Mayer, M-A. Nicolet, T.M. Buck, G. Amsel and F. Eisen, Thin Solid Films 17, 1 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 16.
    V. Marrello, J.M. Caywood, J.W. Mayer and M-A. Nicolet, Phys. Status Solidi a13, 531 (1972).ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 17.
    T.W. Sigmon, W.K. Chu, H. Muller and J.W. Mayer, Appl. Phys. (in press).Google Scholar
  38. 18.
    W.K. Chu, B.L. Crowder, J.W. Mayer and J.F. Ziegler, in Ref. 3, p. 225.Google Scholar
  39. 19.
    D. Powers and W. Whaling, Phys. Rev. 126, 61 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 20.
    J.A. Moore, I.V. Mitchell, M.J. Hollis, J.A. Davies and L.M. Howe, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 52 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 21.
    R.S. Blewer, in Ref. 2, p. 557.Google Scholar
  42. 22.
    W.K. Chu and B.M. Ullrich, private communication.Google Scholar
  43. 23.
    J.M. Harris, private communication.Google Scholar
  44. 24.
    J.W. Mayer and K.N. Tu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 86 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 25.
    K.N. Tu and B.S. Berry, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3283 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 26.
    S.S. Lau, W.K. Chu, J.W. Mayer and K.N. Tu, Thin Solid Films 23, 205 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 27.
    J.A. Borders and S.T. Picraux, Proc. IEEE 62, 1224 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 28.
    W.K. Chu, H. Krauťle, J.W. Mayer, H. Muller, M-A. Nicolet and K.N. Tu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 18 (1974).Google Scholar
  49. 29.
    J.O. McCaldin and H. Sankur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 524 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 30.
    J.M. Caywood, Metall. Trans. 4, 735 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 31.
    V. Marrello, T.A. McMath, J.W. Mayer and I.L. Fowler, Nuc. Inst, and Meth. 108, 93 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 32.
    J.O. McCaldin and A. Fern, Proc. IEEE 60, 1018 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 33.
    V. Marrello, T.F. Lee, R.N. Silver, T.C. McGill and J.W. Mayer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 593 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 34.
    C. Canal i, J.W. Mayer, G. Ottaviani, D. Sigurd and W. van der Weg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 3 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 35.
    W.J. De Bonte, J.M. Poate, C M. Melliar-Smith and R.A. Levesque, in Ref. 2, p. 147.Google Scholar
  56. 36.
    W. Eckstein, B.M.U. Scherzer and H. Verbeck, Rad. Effects 18, 135 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 37.
    A. Fontell, E. Arminen and M. Turunen, Phys. Stat. Solidi a15, 113 (1973).ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 38.
    S.M. Myers, S.T. Picraux and T.S. Prevender, Phys. Rev. B9, 3953 (1974).ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 39.
    W. Akutagawa, D. Turnbull, W.K. Chu and J.W. Mayer, Solid State Comm. 15, 1919 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 40.
    I.V. Mitchell, J.W. Mayer, J.K. Kung and W.G. Spitzer, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3982 (1971).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 41.
    M-A. Nicolet, private communication.Google Scholar
  62. 42.
    M. Peisach, Thin Solid Films 19, 297 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 1.
    W.K. Chu, J.W. Mayer, M-A. Nicolet, T.M. Buck, G. Amsel and F. Eisen, Thin Solid Films 17, 1 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 2.
    Rutherford, Phil. Mag. 21, 669 (1911). This and other famous papers are published in R.T. Beyer, “Foundation of Nuclear Physics,” Dover Publications, New York, 1949.Google Scholar
  65. 3.
    W.K. Chu and J.F. Ziegler (to be published).Google Scholar
  66. 4.
    W.A. Wenzel, Ph.D. Thesis, California Institute of Technology, 1952.Google Scholar
  67. 5.
    W.A. Wenzel and W. Whaling, Phys. Rev. 87, 449 (1952).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 6.
    D. Powers and W. Whaling, Phys. Rev. 126, 61 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 7.
    E.I. Siritonin, A.F. Tulinov, A. Fiderkevich and K.S. Shyskin, Vestnik MGU (Ser. Fiz. Astr.), 12 (1971) 541. Also see Rad. Effects 15, 149 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 8.
    D.K. Brice, Thin Solid Films 19, 121 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 9.
    J.S.-Y. Feng, W.K. Chu, M-A. Nicolet and J.W. Mayer, Thin Solid Films 19, 195 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 10.
    W.K. Lin, S. Matteson and D. Powers (to be published).Google Scholar
  73. 11.
    W.K. Chu, J.F. Ziegler, I.V. Mitchell and W.K. Mackintosh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 437 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 12.
    R. Behrisch and B.M.U. Scherzer, Thin Solid Film 19, 247 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 13.
    E. Leminen, Ann. Acad. Sci. Fennicae A V1 386 (1972).Google Scholar
  76. 14.
    E. Leminen and A. Fontell, Rad. Eff. 22, 39 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 15.
    R.A. Semmler, J.F. Tribby and J.E. Brugger, Report C00–712–89, US Atomic Energy Commission, Div. of Technical Information (Oct. 1964).Google Scholar
  78. 16.
    F. Ajzenberg-Selove and T. Lauritsen, Nuclear Physics.Google Scholar
  79. 17.
    S.J. Campisano, G. Foti, F. Grasso, J.W. Mayer and E. Rimini, Application of Ion Beam to Metal, by S.T. Picraux, ErNisse and F.L. Vook (Plenum Press, New York 1974) p. 159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • James F. Ziegler
    • 1
  • J. W. Mayer
    • 2
  • B. M. Ullrich
    • 2
  • Wei-Kan Chu
    • 2
  1. 1.IBM - ResearchYorktown HeightsUSA
  2. 2.California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations