Phylogeny, Behavior, and Ecology in the Mammalia

  • John F. Eisenberg


In a review written some 11 and published 9 years ago, I attempted to summarize the literature concerning mammalian social behavior and then proceeded to discuss two major issues: (1) the relationship of social structure to the species’ habitat and economy, and (2) the influence of evolutionary history on the form of social organization displayed (Eisenberg, 1966). The almost exponential increase of information during the last decade concerning mammalian social behavior and ecology, as well as the founding of social ecology as a subdiscipline (Crook, 1970), have rendered my earlier review out of date. My co-workers and I have recently attempted two reviews, one for primates, the other for selected carnivores (Eisenberg et al., 1972; Kleiman and Eisenberg, 1973). The problems of correlation and reconstruction remain as challenging as ever.


Home Range Parental Care Litter Size Brain Size Tree Shrew 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altman, S., and J. Altman. 1970. Baboon Ecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, P. K. 1970. Ecological structure and gene flow in small mammals, pp. 299–325. In R. Berry and H. N. Southern, eds., Variation in Mammalian Populations. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Andrew, R.J. 1962. Evolution of intelligence and vocal mimicking. Science137:585–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrew, R. J. 1963. The origins and evolution of the calls and facial expressions of the primates. Behavior20:1–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrew, R.J. 1964. The displays of primates, pp. 227–309. In J. Buettner-Janusch, ed., Evolutionary and Genetic Biology of Primates. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Asdell, S. A. 1965. Reproduction and development, pp. 2–43. In R. Mayer and R. VanGelder, eds., Physiological Mammalogy, Vol. II. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Bauchot, R., and H. Stephan. 1966. Donees nouvelles sur l’encephalisation des Insectivores et des Prosimiens. Mammalia30:160–196.Google Scholar
  8. Britton, S. W. and R. F. Kline. 1939. Augmentation of activity in the sloth by adrenal extract, emotion, and other conditions. Am. J. Physiol.127:127–130.Google Scholar
  9. Cartmill, M. 1972. Arboreal adaptations and the origin of the Order Primates, pp. 97–122. In R. Tuttle, ed., The Function and Evolutionary Biology of Primates. Aldine-Atherton, Chicago/New York.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, W. E. LeGros. 1924. On the brain of Tupaia minor. Proc. Zool. Soc. London1924:1053–1074.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, W. E. LeGros. 1926. On the anatomy of the pen-tailed tree shrew (Ptilocercus lowii). Proc. Zool. Soc. London1926:1179–1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Collins, L. 1973. Monotremes and Marsupials: A Reference for Zoological Institutions. Smithsonian Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  13. Crook, J. H. 1970. Social organization and the environment: Aspects of contemporary social ecology. Anim. Behav.18:197–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dollo, L. 1899. Les ancetres des marsupiaux etaient-ils arboricoles? Travaux Station Zoologie de Wimeraux, 7:588 (as cited in Gregory, 1951).Google Scholar
  15. Eisenberg, J. F. 1966. The social organizations of mammals. Handbuch der Zoologie, VIII(10/7), Lieferung 39, W. De Gruyter, Berlin, 92 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Eisenberg, J. F. 1973. Mammalian social systems: Are primate social systems unique ? pp. 232–249. In E. Menzel, ed., Symposium of the Fourth International Congress of Primatology, Vol. 1. S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  17. Eisenberg, J. F., and E. Gould. 1970. The tenrecs: A study in mammalian behavior and evolution. Smithson. Contrib. Zool.27:1–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eisenberg, J. F., and M. Lockhart. 1972. An ecological reconnaissance of Wilpattu National Park, Ceylon. Smithson. Contrib. Zool.101:1–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eisenberg, J. F., and G. McKay. 1974. Comparison of ungulate adaptation in the New World and Old World tropical forests with special reference to Ceylon and the rainforests of Central America, pp. 585–602. In V. Geist and F. Walther, eds., The Behavior of Ungulates and Its Relation to Management, Vol. 2. I.U.C.N. Publication 24, Morges.Google Scholar
  20. Eisenberg, J. F., and R. W. Thorington, Jr. 1973. A preliminary analysis of a neotropical mammal fauna. Biotropica5:150–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eisenberg, J. F., A. Muckenhirn, and R. Rudran. 1972. The relationship between ecology and social structure in primates. Science176:863–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eliot-Smith, G. 1898. The brain in the Edentata. Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Ser. II, (Zoology)7:277–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Encke, W. 1965. Aufzucht von Borestengürteltieren, Chaetophractus villosus. Der Zoologische Garten (NF) 31(1/2): 88–90.Google Scholar
  24. Ewer, R. F. 1968. A preliminary survey of the behavior in captivity of the dasyurid marsupial, Sminthopsis crassicaudata. Z. Tierpsychol.25:319–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fooden, J. 1972. Breakup of Pangaea and isolation of relict mammals in Australia, South America, and Madagascar. Science175:894–898.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goffart, M. 1971. Function and Form in the Sloth. Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Gould, E. 1965. Evidence for echolocation in the Tenrecidae of Madagascar. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc.109(6): 352–360.Google Scholar
  28. Gould, E., and J. F. Eisenberg. 1966. Notes on the biology of the Tenrecidae. J. Mammal.47(4): 660–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gregory, W. K. 1951. Evolution Emerging, Vols. 1 and 2. Macmillan Co., New York.Google Scholar
  30. Gucwinska, H. 1971. Development of six-banded armadillos, Euphractus sexcinctus, at Wroclaw Zoo. Int. Zoo Yearb.11:88–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jerison, H. J. 1973. Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Kaufmann, J. 1974. Social ethology of the whiptail wallaby, Macropus parryi, in northeastern New South Wales. Anim. Behav.22:281–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kleiman, D. G. 1972. Maternal behavior of the green acouchi (Myoprocta pratti Pocock), a South American caviomorph rodent. Behaviour43:48–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kleiman, D. G. 1974. Patterns of behaviour in hystricomorph rodents, pp. 171–209. In I. W. Rowlands and B. Wier, eds., The Biology of Hystricomorph Rodents. Symp. Zool. Soc. London, No. 34. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Kleiman, D. G., and J. F. Eisenberg. 1973. Comparisons of canid and felid social systems from an evolutionary perspective. Anim. Behav.21:637–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kühlhorn, F. 1936. Die anpassungstypen der Gürteltiere. Z. Saeugetierk.12:245–303.Google Scholar
  37. Lent, P. 1974. Mother-infant relationships in ungulates, pp. 14–55. In V. Geist and F. Walther, eds., The Behavior of Ungulates and Its Relation to Management, Vol. 1. I.U.C.N. Publication 24, Morges.Google Scholar
  38. MacArthur, R. H. 1972. Geographical Ecology: Patterns in the Distribution of Species. Harper and Row, New York.Google Scholar
  39. MacMillen, R. E., and J. E. Nelson. 1969. Bioenergetics and body size in dasyurid marsupials. Am. J. Physiol.217(4): 1246–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Mann, G. 1963. Phylogeny and cortical evolution in Chiroptera. Evolution17:589–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Marler, P. 1961. The logical analysis of animal communication. J. Theoret. Biol.1:295–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Martin, R. D. 1968. Reproduction and ontogeny in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), with reference to their general behaviour and taxonomic relationships. Z. Tierpsychol.25(4): 409–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McKay, G., and J. F. Eisenberg. 1974. Movement patterns and habitat utilization of ungulates in Ceylon, pp. 708–721. In V. Geist and F. Walther, eds., The Behavior of Ungulates and Its Relation to Management, Vol. 2. I.U.C.N. Publication 24, Morges.Google Scholar
  44. McKenna, M. C. 1963. New evidence against tupaioid affinities of the mammalian family Anagalidae. Am. Mus. Novit2158:1–16.Google Scholar
  45. McNab, B. K. 1963. Bioenergetics and the determination of home range size. Am. Nat.97:133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Moeller, H. 1968a. Zur Frage der Parallelerscheinungen bei Metatheria und Eutheria. Z. Wissenschaft. Zool.177:282–392.Google Scholar
  47. Moeller, H. 1968b. Allometrische Analyse der Gürteltierschädel. Ein Beitrag zur Phylogenie der Dasypodidae. Zool. Jahrb.85(3): 411–528.Google Scholar
  48. Montgomery, G. G., and M. E. Sunquist. 1975. Impact of sloths on neotropical forest energy flow and nutrient cycling, pp. 69–111. In F. Golley and E. Medina, eds., Tropical Ecological Systems. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Olson, E. C. 1961. The food chain and the origin of mammals, pp. 97–116. In International Colloquium on the Evolution of Lower and Nonspecialized Mammals, Vol. 1. Kon. VI Acad. Wetemsch. Lett. Sch. Kunsten België, Brussels.Google Scholar
  50. Pagès, E. 1970. Sur l’écologie et les adaptations de l’orycterope et des pangolins sympatriques du Gabon. Biol. Gabonica6:27–92.Google Scholar
  51. Pagès, E. 1972a. Comportement agressif et sexuel chez les pangolins arboricoles (Manis tricuspis et M. longicaudata). Biol. Gabonica8(1): 3–62.Google Scholar
  52. Pagès, E. 1972b. Comportement maternel et developpement du jeune chez un pangolin arboricole (M. tricuspis). Biol. Gabonica8(1): 63–120.Google Scholar
  53. Patterson, B. 1965. The fossil elephant shrews (Family Macroscelididae). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. (Harvard)133(6): 297–335.Google Scholar
  54. Patterson, B., and R. Pasqual. 1972. The fossil mammal fauna of South America, pp. 247–310. In A. Keast, F. Erk, and B. Glass, eds., Evolution, Mammals, and Southern Continents. State University of New York, Stony Brook.Google Scholar
  55. Pearson, R. 1964. Animals and Plants of the Cenozoic Era. Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  56. Pepper, S. C. 1961. World Hypotheses. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  57. Peterson, E. A., and W. C. Heaton. 1968. Peripheral auditory responses in representative Edentates. J. Audit. Res.8:171–184.Google Scholar
  58. Petter, F. 1972. The rodents of Madagascar, pp. 661–666. In G. Battistini and G. Richard-Vindard, eds., Biogeography and Ecology in Madagascar. Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
  59. Pianka, E. R. 1972. r and K selection or b and d selection. Am. Nat.106:581–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pilleri, G. 1959. Beiträge zur vergleichenden Morphologie des Nagetiergehirnes. Acta Anat.39(Suppl. 38): 1–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Poduschka, W. 1974. Das Paarungsverhalten des Grossen Igel-Tenrek (Setifer setosus, Froriep 1806) und die Frage des phylogenetischen Alters einiger Parrungseinzelheiten. Z. Tierpsychol.34:345–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Portman, A. 1965. Über die Evolution der Tragzeit bei Säugetieren. Rev. Suisse Zool.72:658–666.Google Scholar
  63. Rohrs L. M. 1966. Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Evolution der Gehirne von Edentaten. I. Hirngewicht-Körpergewicht. Z. Zool. Syst. Evolutionforsch.4:196–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Russell, E. M. 1973. Mother-young relations and early behavioural development in the marsupials, Macropus eugenii and Megaleia rufa. Z. Tierpsychol.33:163–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sauer, E. G. F., and E. M. Sauer. 1971. Die kurzohrigen Elefantenspitzmaus in der Namib. Namib Meer2:5–43.Google Scholar
  66. Sauer, E. G. F., and E. M. Sauer. 1972. Zur Biologie der Kurzohrigen Elefantenspitzmaus. Z. Kölner Zoo15(4): 119–139.Google Scholar
  67. Sharman, G. B. 1965. Marsupials and the evolution of viviparity, pp. 1–28. In J. D. Carthy and C. L. Diddington, eds., Viewpoints in Biology, Vol. 4. Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  68. Sharman, G. B., J. H. Calaby, and W. E. Poole. 1966. Patterns of reproduction in female diprotodont marsupials, pp. 205–232. In I. W. Rowlands, ed., Comparative Biology of Reproduction in Mammals. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  69. Simpson, G. G. 1940. Mammals and land bridges. J. Wash. Acad. Sci.30:137–163.Google Scholar
  70. Simpson, G. G. 1944. Tempo and Mode in Evolution. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  71. Simpson, G. G. 1959. The nature and origin of supraspecific taxa. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol.24:255–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Smith, C. 1968. The adaptive nature of social organization in the genus of tree squirrels, Tamiasciurus. Ecol. Monogr.38:31–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tyndale-Biscoe, H. 1973. Life of Marsupials. American Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Van Valen, L. 1965. Tree shrews, primates and fossils. Evolution19(2): 137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vorontsov, N. N. 1960. The ways of food specialization and evolution of the alimentary system in Muroidea, pp. 360–371. In J. Kratochvil, ed., Symposium Theriologicum. Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved., Brno.Google Scholar
  76. Weber, M. 1928. Die Säugetiere, Vol. 2. Systematics, with O. Abel. Gustav Fischer, Jena.Google Scholar
  77. Wickler, W. 1961. Ökologie und Stammesgeschichte von Verhaltensweisen. Fortschr. Zool.13:303–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Wilson, E. O. 1973. Group selection and its significance for ecology. Bioscience23:631–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wirz, K. 1950. Studien über die Cerebralisation : Zur Quantitativen Bestimmung der Rangordnung bei Säugetieren. Acta Anat.9:134–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wooley, P. 1966. Reproduction in Antechinus sp. and other dasyurid marsupials, pp. 281–294. In I. W. Rowlands, ed., Comparative Biology of Reproduction in Mammals. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • John F. Eisenberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Smithsonian InstitutionNational Zoological ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations