The Bearing of Reproductive Behavior and Ontogeny on Strepsirhine Phylogeny

  • R. D. Martin


Any attempt to reconstruct evolutionary relationships between species is obviously heavily dependent upon speculation, mitigated only in rare cases where direct reference may be made to appropriate, well-documented fossil evidence. It is a fundamental feature of all phylogenetic reconstructions involving living forms that—whether or not relevant fossil evidence is available—the most suitable first step is the formulation of a set of hypotheses about ancestors linking the living forms. Recognition and allocation of fossil evidence is generally dependent upon prior development of explicit or implicit hypotheses about ancestral stocks relating certain living forms. The major, unique advantage of fossil material—if correctly interpreted—is that it permits the addition of a time scale to hypothetical phylogenetic trees.


Corpus Luteum Estrous Cycle Maternal Care Gestation Period Tree Shrew 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amoroso, E. C. 1952. Placentation, pp. 127–311. In A. S. Parkes, ed., Marshall’s Physiology of Reproduction, Vol. 2. Longmans, Green & Co., London.Google Scholar
  2. Asdell, S. A. 1966. Evolutionary trends in physiology of reproduction. Symp. Zool. Soc. London15:1–13.Google Scholar
  3. Ben Shaul, D. M. 1962. The composition of the milk of wild animals. Int. Zoo. Yearb. 4:333–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buss, D. H. 1971. Mammary glands and lactation, pp. 315–333. In E. S. E. Hafez, ed., Comparative Reproduction of Nonhuman Primates. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  5. Charles-Dominique, P. 1972. Ecologie et vie sociale de Galago demidovii (Fischer 1808; Prosimii). Z. Tierpsychol. Beiheft9:7–41.Google Scholar
  6. Charles-Dominique, P., and R. D. Martin. 1970. Evolution of lorises and lemurs. Nature227:257–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conaway, C. H. 1971. Ecological adaptation and mammalian reproduction. Biol. Reprod. 4:239–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Conaway, C. H., and M. W. Sorenson. 1966. Reproduction in tree-shrews. Symp. Zool. Soc. London15:471–492.Google Scholar
  9. Cook, C., and D. Hewett-Emmett. 1974. The uses of protein sequence data in systematics, pp. 939–958. In R. D. Martin, G. A. Doyle, and A. C. Walker, eds., Prosimian Biology. Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  10. D’Souza, F., and R. D. Martin. 1974. Maternal behaviour and the effects of stress in tree-shrews. Nature251: 309–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elert, R. 1947. Der Mechanismus der Eiabnahme im Laparoskop, Zbl. Gynäk. 69:38–43.Google Scholar
  12. Everett, J. W. 1961. The mammalian female reproductive cycle and its controlling mechanisms, pp. 497–555. In W. C. Young, ed., Sex and Internal Secretions, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  13. Glover, T. D., and J. B. Sale. 1968. The reproductive system of the male rock hyrax (Procavia and Heterohyrax). J. Zool. London156:351–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grosser, O. 1909. Vergleichende Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Eihäute und der Placenta (mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Menschen). Wilhelm Braumüller, Vienna and Leipzig.Google Scholar
  15. Hafez, E. S. E. 1971. Reproductive cycles, pp. 160–204. In E. S. E. Hafez, ed., Comparative Reproduction of Nonhuman Primates. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  16. Harrison, G. A., and J. S. Weiner. 1964. Human evolution. pp. 3–98. In G. A. Harrison, J. S. Weiner, J. M. Tanner, and N. A. Barnicot, eds., Human Biology. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  17. Hennig, W. 1950. Grundzüge einer Theorie der phylogenetischen Systematik. Deutscher Zentralverlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  18. Hill, J. P. 1932. The developmental history of the Primates. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B. 221:45–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hill, J. P. 1965. On the placentation of Tupaia.J. Zool. London146:278–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hill, W. C. O. 1953. Primates I: Strepsirhini. Edinburgh University Press, London.Google Scholar
  21. Hoffstetter, R. 1973. Origine, compréhension et signification des taxons de rang supérieur: quelques enseignements tirés de l’histoire des mammifères. Ann. Paléontol. 59:137–169.Google Scholar
  22. Hubrecht, A. A. W. 1908. Early ontogenetic phenomena in mammals and their bearing on our interpretation of the phylogeny of the vertebrates. Q.J. Microsc. Sci. 53:1–181.Google Scholar
  23. Ioannou, J. M. 1971. Female reproductive organs, pp. 131–159. In E. S. E. Hafez, ed., Comparative Reproduction of Nonhuman Primates. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  24. Kihlström, J. E. 1972. Period of gestation and body weight in some placental mammals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 43:673–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lange, D. de. 1920. Vorläufige Mitteilung über die Beschaffenheit der Ovarialtasche von Chrysochlorus, Galeopithecus und Tupaja. Bijdr. dierkd. K. Zool. Genootsch. 22:227–232.Google Scholar
  26. Le Gros Clark, W. E. 1971. The Antecedents of Man. Edinburgh University Press, London.Google Scholar
  27. Leutenegger, W. 1973. Maternal-fetal weight relationships in primates, Folia Primatol. 20:280–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Luckett, W. P. 1968. Morphogenesis of the placenta and fetal membranes of the tree shrews (Family Tupaiidae). Am. J. Anat. 123:385–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Luckett, W. P. 1969. Evidence for the phylogenetic relationships of tree shrews (Family Tupaiidae) based on the placenta and foetal membranes. J. Reprod. Reprod. Suppl. 6:419–433.Google Scholar
  30. Luckett, W. P. 1974a. Comparative development and evolution of the placenta in primates. Contrib. Primatol. 3:142–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Luckett, W. P. 1974b. The phylogenetic relationships of the prosimian primates: Evidence from the morphogenesis of the placenta and foetal membranes, pp. 475–488. In R. D. Martin, G. A. Doyle, and A. C. Walker, eds., Prosimian Biology. Duckworth, London.Google Scholar
  32. Manley, G. H. 1966. Reproduction in lorisoid primates. Symp. Zool. Soc. London15:493–509.Google Scholar
  33. Martin, R. D. 1966. Treeshrews: Unique reproductive mechanism of systematic importance. Science152:1402–1404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Martin, R. D. 1968a. Towards a new definition of Primates. Man3:377–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Martin, R. D. 1968b. Reproduction and ontogeny in tree-shrews (Tupaia belangen), with reference to their general behaviour and taxonomic relationships. Z. Tierpsychol. 25:409–532.Google Scholar
  36. Martin, R. D. 1969. The evolution of reproductive mechanisms in primates. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 6:49–66.Google Scholar
  37. Martin, R. D. 1972a. Adaptive radiation and behaviour of the Malagasy lemurs. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B. 264:295–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Martin, R. D. 1972b). A preliminary field study of the lesser mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus J. F. Miller 1777). Z. Tierpsychol. Beiheft9:43–89.Google Scholar
  39. Martin, R. D. 1973. Comparative anatomy and primate systematics. Symp. Zool. Soc. London33:301–337.Google Scholar
  40. Mayr, E. 1974. Cladistic analysis or cladistic classification? Z. Zool. Syst. Evolut.-Forsch. 12:94–128.Google Scholar
  41. Mossman, H. W. 1937. Comparative morphogenesis of the fetal membranes and accessory uterine structures. Contrib. Embryol. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 26:129–246.Google Scholar
  42. Perry, J. S. 1971. The Ovarian Cycle of Mammals. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  43. Portmann, A. 1939. Die Ontogenese der Säugetiere als Evolutionsproblem. Biomorphol. 1:109–126.Google Scholar
  44. Portmann, A. 1941. Die Tragzeit der Primaten und die Dauer der Schwangerschaft beim Menschen; ein Problem der vergleichende Biologie. Rev. Suisse Zool. 48:511–518.Google Scholar
  45. Portmann, A. 1959. Einführung in die vergleichende Morphologie der Wirbeltiere. Benno-Schwabe & Co. Verlag, Basel.Google Scholar
  46. Portmann, A. 1965. Über die Evolution der Tragzeit bei Säugetieren. Rev. Suisse Zool. 72:658–666.Google Scholar
  47. Robinson, P. L. 1973. Palaeoclimatology and continental drift, pp. 451–476. In D. H. Tarling and S. K. Rumcorn, eds., Implications of Continental Drift to the Earth Sciences, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Romer, A. S. 1966. Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  49. Romero-Herrera, A. E., H. Lehmann, K. A. Joysey, and A. E. Friday. 1973. Molecular evolution of myoglobin and the fossil record: A phylogenetic synthesis. Nature246:389–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sacher, G. A., and E. F. Staffeldt. 1974. Relation of gestation time to brain weight for placental mammals: implications for the theory of vertebrate growth. Am. Nat. 108:593–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schultz, A. H. 1948. The number of young at birth and the number of nipples in primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (N.S.) 6:1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Simons, E. L. 1972. Primate Evolution: An Introduction to Man’s Place in Nature. Macmillan Co., New York.Google Scholar
  53. Simpson, G. G. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 85:1–350.Google Scholar
  54. Sorenson, M. W. 1970. Behavior of tree shrews, pp. 141–194. In L. A. Rosenblum, ed., Primate Behavior, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Starck, D. 1965. Embryologie. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  56. Stephan, H. 1972. Evolution of primate brains: a comparative anatomical investigation, pp. 155–174. In R. Tuttle, ed., The Functional and Evolutionary Biology of Primates. Aldine-Atherton, Chicago.Google Scholar
  57. Stephan, H., R. Bauchot, and O. J. Andy. 1970. Data on size of the brain and of various brain parts in insectivores and primates, pp. 289–297. In C. R. Noback and W. Montagna, eds., The Primate Brain. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  58. von Holst, D. 1969. Sozialer Stress bei Tupajas (Tupaia belangen). Z. vgl. Physiol. 63:1–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Weir, B. J., and I. W. Rowlands. 1973. Reproductive strategies in mammals. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 4:139–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Young, J. Z. 1962. The Life of the Vertebrates. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. D. Martin
    • 1
  1. 1.Wellcome Institute of Comparative PhysiologyThe Zoological Society of LondonLondon N.W.1UK

Personalised recommendations