Chemical Equilibrium Relations and the pH System

  • William B. Guenther


Chemists developed sufficiently sensitive methods of analysis in the 19th century to discover that many reactions “stop” somewhere short of completion. Berthelot and St. Gilles in 1862 showed that esterification reaches such a limit:
$$ethanol + \,acetic{\text{ }}acid\, \rightleftharpoons \,{\text{ethyl acetate}}\,{\text{ + }}\,{\text{water}}$$


Ionic Strength Activity Coefficient Equilibrium Relation Sodium Formate Strong Electrolyte 
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  1. 1.
    A. Darlington and W. B. Guenther, J. Chem. Eng. Data 12, 605 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Kielland, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59, 1675 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. J. Hamer, Theoretical Mean Activity Coefficients of Strong Electrolytes in Aqueous Solutions from 0 to 100° C, NBS No. 24, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1968.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See L. G. Sillen and A. E. Martell, Stability Constants of Metal Ion Complexes, Special Publications No. 17, 1964, and No. 25 (Supplement), 1971, The Chemical Society, London.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Roger Bates, The Determination of pH, 2nd ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1973.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • William B. Guenther
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryThe University of the SouthSewaneeUSA

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