The Ocean as an Environment

  • Charles W. Shilling
  • Margaret F. Werts
  • Nancy R. Schandelmeier


“The ocean environment can be described in terms of the density, temperature, and salinity of water; atmospheric conditions (barometric pressure, air temperature and humidity, winds and contaminants); tides and currents; and bottom topography, water clarity, and marine organisms. All of these factors interact to make an ever-changing and formidable environment for men and material. For the working diver these conditions become more rigorous with each additional fathom” (Battelle 1971).


Specific Gravity Freezing Point Surf Zone Slack Water Adiabatic Temperature Change 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles W. Shilling
    • 1
  • Margaret F. Werts
    • 1
  • Nancy R. Schandelmeier
    • 1
  1. 1.Science Communication Division, Department of Medical and Public Affairs The Medical CenterThe George Washington UniversityUSA

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