Advertisement

Retardation of Combustion of Phenolic, Urea-Formaldehyde, Epoxy, and Related Resin Systems

  • Robert T. Conley
  • Daniel F. Quinn

Abstract

The flame resistance of phenolic, urea—formaldehyde, epoxy, and related resin systems appears to represent examples of polymers which are inter mediate in their combustion behavior between most of the vinyl systems and the so-called nonflammible, heat-resistant polymers. In fact, the phenolic resin system in fiber form has been reported to exhibit a high degree of flame resistance(1,2) In a chemical sense, these materials can be considered to exhibit properties which can be termed self-retarding with regard to their combustion behavior. The combustion process, in general terms, can be described in terms of the degradation of these materials. As you have already seen in previous chapters in this volume, the combustion of polymeric materials can be considered to take place in a number of stages. Such generalized stages are closely intertwined owing to variations in the type of external heat applied to the material, the geometry of the combusting polymer, the atmosphere in which the combustion is occurring, and the morphological and chemical characteristics of the specific material.

Keywords

Organophosphorus Compound Furfuryl Alcohol Resin System Epoxy Resin System Melamine Resin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. Economy and L. C. Wohrer. Spinner, Weber, Textilxeredl. 88, 1223 (1970).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Economy. F. J. Frechette, and L. C. Wohrer. Ger. Pat. 1.948.412 (April 23. 1970).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. T. Conley and J. F. Bieron, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 7, 103 (1963).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. T. Conley and J. F. Bieron, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 7, 171 (1963).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. T. Conley. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 9, 1117 (1965).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. W. Lochte, E. L. Strass. and R. T. Conley..J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 9. 2799 (1965).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. M. Jackson and R. T. Conley, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 8, 2163 (1964).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. T. Conley, Development of Applied Spectroseopy ,Vol. 4. pp. 377–402. Plenum Press. New York (1965).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. P. Shulman and H. W. Lochte, Polym. Prepr. 6, 36 (1965).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. P. Shulman and H. W. Lochte, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 10, 619 (1966).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Q. Hall, Chem. Ind. (London) ,1952, 693.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. S. Kharasch and B. S. Joshi, J. Org. Chem. 22, 1439 (1957).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. D. Cook, D. A. Kuhn, and P. Fianu, J. Am. Chem. Soe. 78. 2002 (1956).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. A. Parker, E. L. Winkler, B. H. Miles, and L. F. Sonnabend, Rep. Org. Coatings Plast. Chem. 27, 132(1967).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. P. Barth, U. S. Pat. 3,076,780 (Feb. 5, 1963).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. C. Lowe and A. S. Carello, Brit. Pat. 901,663 (July 25, 1962).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Societe Francaise Albert, Fr. Addn. 88,149 (to Fr. Pat. 1,389,825) (Dec. 16. 1966).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. G. Levitas, P. V. Evseev, P. A. Nuss, A. N. Yampolskii. and Yu. I. Koltunov. U.S.S.R. Pat. 157,604 (Oct. 5, 1963).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. G. B. Mitchell, Plasties (London) 24, 44, 85 (1959).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. M. Wagner, U.S. Pat. 2,814,607 (Nov. 26, 1957).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    E. C. Soule, L. S. Burnett, and G. M. Wagner, U.S. Pat. 3,038,822 (June 12, 1962).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Gavlin and W. M. Boyer. U.S. Pat. 3,038,822 (June 12. 1962).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. G. Brandts, U.S. Pat. 3,092.537 (June 4, 1963).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    H. A. Smith, U.S. Pat. 3,320,213 (May 16, 1967).Google Scholar
  25. Brit. Pat. 969,095 (Sept. 9, 1964) (to Monsanto Company).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. E. Hull. III, and E. W. Simpson, Fr. Pat. 1,364,821 (June 26. 1964).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    P. Dorier and B. Robinet, Fr. Pat. 1,482,967 (June 2, 1967).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Shimizu, Japan. Pat. 13,073 (June 24. 1965).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. W. Quailes and J. A. Baumann. U.S. Pat. 3.298.973 (Jan, 17, 1967).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. Elmer and J. J. Mestdagh, U.S. Pat. 3,352,744 (Nov. 14, 1967).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. A. Konstantnaya. Isv. Vyssh. Ueheb. Zaved., Les. Zh. 12. 165 (1969).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. E. Hoxie, U.S. Pat. 3,377,317 (April 9, 1968).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. F. Shepard and B. F. Dannels, U.S. Pat. 3,409,571 (Nov. 5, 1968).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. F. Dannels and A. F. Shepard, Rep. Org. Coatings Plast. Chem. 27, 125 (1967).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. D. Davis, E. Elvis, and R. E. Morgan, Jr., Ger. Pat. 1,960,201 (June 18, 1970).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    D. A. Brown, H. Coates, J. Girard, A. Thiot, and G. Quesnel, Ger. Pat. 1,300,294 (July 31, 1969).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Taniuchi and M. Koide, Japan. Pat. 70–11,432 (April 24, 1970).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    V. K. Ninin, S. V. Shner, N. V. Shorygina, I. K. Rubtsova, and L. P. Bocharova, U.S.S.R. Pat. 200,149 (July 13, 1967).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    N. V. Shorygina, V. K. Ninin, L. Z. Soborovskii, A. B. Bruker, and Kh. R. Raver, U.S.S.R. Pat. 179,920 (Feb. 28, 1966).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. Girard, A. Thiot, and G. Quesnel, U.S. Pat. 3,121,697 (Feb. 18, 1964).Google Scholar
  41. Brit. Pat. 931,146 (July 10, 1963 (to Albright and Wilson, Ltd.).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. M. Pollock and N. B. Ray, Brit. Pat. 920,722 (March 13, 1963).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    H. Grahmann and N. Pusch, Ger. Pat. 1,065,116 (Sept. 10, 1959).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    G. L. Quesnel, J. Girard, and A. Thiot, Fr. Pat. 1,213,894 (April 5, 1960).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    P. N. Erickson and A. N. Erickson, U.S. Pat. 3,256,216 (June 14, 1966).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A. Heslinga and P. J. Napjus, Ger. Pat. 1,197,614 (July 29, 1965).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    R. T. Conley and L. L. Chow, Rep. Org. Coatings Plast. Chem. 27, 133 (1967).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. Hanton, Fr. Pat. 1,588,803 (May 9, 1968).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Y. Hachihama and T. Shono, Studies on Furfuryl Alcohol Resin, I, Tech. Report, Osaka Univ., Japan (1954).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    R. T. Conley and I. Metil, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 7, 37 (1963).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    R. T. Conley and I. Metil, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 7, 1083 (1963).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    L. M. Prutkov, F. M. Gurdzhi, and O. A. Pochernikova, U.S.S.R. Pat. 260,175 (Dec. 22, 1969).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    F. O. Mamedov, I. V. Kamenskii, and V. I. Itinskii, U.S.S.R. Pat. 149,434 (Feb. 26, 1965).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    L. H. Brown and D. D. Watson, Ger. Pat. 1,927,776 (Dec. 4, 1969).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    J. H. Lady, R. E. Adams, and I. Kesse, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 3, 65 (1960).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    R. T. Conley, Proc. Battelle Mem. Inst. Symp., Thermal Stability of Polymers, Colum bus, Ohio (Dec. 1963), pp. E1-E63.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    C. J. Hilado, Flammability Handbook for Plastics ,p. 31, Technomic Publishing Co., Stamford, Conn. (1969).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    R. Polansky and W. F. Herbes, U.S. Pat. 2,854,437 (Sept. 30, 1958).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    R. Polansky and W. F. Herbes, U.S. Pat. 2,859,206 (Nov. 4, 1958).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    W. F. Herbes, U.S. Pat. 2,923,644 (Feb. 2, 1960).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. J. Nemes, R. Polansky and W. F. Herbes, U.S. Pat. 3,308,098 (March 7, 1967).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Z. Pawlowska and J. Linkowicz, Pr. Cent. Inst. Ochrony Pr. 15, 147 (1965).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    R. A. Corai, Fr. Pat. 1,399,173 (May 14, 1965).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    L. Krema, Textil 21, 230 (1966).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    V. Duroux, Fr. Pat. 993,047 (Oct. 25, 1951).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    F. A. M. Cotelle, Fr. Pat. 1,228,230 (Aug. 29, 1960).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    J. Urbanek, Brit. Pat. 864,099 (March 29, 1961).Google Scholar
  68. Belg. Pat. 665,047 (Dec. 8, 1965) (to Chemische Werke Albert).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    K. Beltzig and A. Becker, Ger (East) Pat. 32,580 (Nov. 15, 1964).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    A. G. Zabrodkin, L. I. Khitrova and N. S. Solomatina, U.S.S.R. Pat. 270,980 (May 12, 1970).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    S. Iwasa, Y. Wada and T. Hayakawa, Japan. Pat. 70–05,674 (Feb. 25, 1970).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    G. M. Wagner, Belg. Pat. 629,820 (Oct. 21, 1963).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    S. K. Kasymbekov, U.S.S.R. Pat. 285,214 (Oct. 29, 1970).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    W. Schulenburg, U.S. Pat. 2,881,088 (April 7, 1959).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    H. Frieser. Ger. Pat. 1,138,323 (Oct. 18, 1962).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    D. C. Lowe and A. S. Carello, Brit. Pat. 901,663 (July 25, 1962).Google Scholar
  77. Fr. Pat. 1,532,540 (July 12, 1968) (to Compagnie de Saint-Gobain).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    S. Koshima, N. Nakao and H. Horimuki. Japan. Pat. 70–17,078 (June 12. 1970).Google Scholar
  79. Fr. Pat. 2.004,073 (Nov. 21. 1969) (to Farbenfabriken Bayer, A. G.).Google Scholar
  80. Ger. Pat. 1,120,127 (Dec. 21, 1971) (to Firestone Tire and Rubber Co.).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    S. Okada, Y. Hori and K. Yamagami. Japan. Pat. 70–09,957 (April 10, 1970).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Y. Yamata, A. Iida. O. Kobayashi, M. Nomura, and M. Yoshizawa. Japan. Pat. 71–04,358 (Feb. 3, 1971).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    H. Malz and F. Kassack. Ger. Pat. 1,102.095 (March 16, 1961).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    D. M. Soignet. R. R. Benerito, and R. H. Berni. U.S. Pat. 3,494,719 (Feb. 10, 1970).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    D. J. Dargle and D. J. Donaldson, Text. Chem. Color. 1. 534 (1969).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    I. S. Goldstein. U.S. Pat. 3,479.211 (Nov. 18, 1969).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    G. C. Tesoro, Ger. Pat. 1,913,137 (Oct. 2, 1969).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    W. Scholles and H. Koddebusch. Ger. Pat. 1,453.377 (April 9, 1970).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    C. A. Holmes, U.S. Forest Serv. Res. Pap., FPL 158 (1971). pp. 1 27.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Societe Française Albert. Fr. Addn. 87,009 (to Fr. Pat. 1.389,825) (May 27, 1966).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    R. G. Fessler and B. C. Tredinnick, Ger. Pat. 2,018,565 (Nov. 5, 1970).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    J. J. Millane, Brit. Pat. 1.213.625 (Nov. 25, 1970).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    H. Lee and K. Neville. Epoxy Resins, Their Applications and Technology ,Chap. 2. McGraw-Hill. New York (1957).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bordon Award Symposium on Epoxy Resins, Rep. Org. Coatings Plast. Chem. 29, 1 (1969).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    W. R. R. Park and J. Blount, Rep. Div. Paint ,Plast. Print. Ink Chem. 16(2). 56 (1956); W. R. R. Park and J. Blount, Ind. Eng. Chem. 49, 1897 (1957).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    M. B. Neiman. B. M. Kovarskaya, M. P. Yazvikova, A. I. Sidnev, and M. S. Akutin. Vysokomolekul. Soedin. 3, 602 (1961).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    M. B. Neiman, B. M. Kovarskaya, L. I. Golubenkova, A. S. Strizhkova, I. I. Levantovskaya, and M. S. Akutin, J. Polym. Sci. 56, 383 (1962).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    D. W. Ovenall, Polym. Lett. 1, 37 (1963).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    R. T. Conley and M. F. Dante, Stability of Plastics, Tech. Conf. Soc. Plastics Eng., Washington, D.C. (June, 1964).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    L. H. Lee, Proc. Battelle Memorial Inst. Symp. Thermal Stability of Polymers, Colum bus, Ohio (Dec. 1963), pp. F1-F23; L. H. Lee, J. Polym. Sci. 3. 859 (1965).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    J. Wynstra, A. G. Farnham, N. H. Reinking, and J. S. Fry. Rep. Div. Paint ,Plast. Print. Ink Chem. 19(2), 84 (1959).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    J. Delmonte, Chem. Eng. Prog. 58, 51 (1962).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    W. J. Belanger and S. A. Schulte, Mod. Plast. 37, 154 (1959).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    M. B. Neiman, L. I. Golubenkova, B. M. Kovarskaya, A. S. Strizhkova, I. I. Levantovskaya, M. S. Akutin, and V. D. Moiseev, Vysokomolekul. Soedin. 1, 1531 (1959).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    M. M. Neiman, B. M. Kovarskaya, I. I. Levantovskaya, A. S. Strizhkova, and M. S. Akutin, Sov. Plast. 7, 18 (1960).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    M. B. Neiman, B. M. Kovarskaya, A. S. Strizhkova, I. I. Levantovskaya, and M. S. Akutin, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. U.S.S.R. 135, 1147 (1960).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    H. C. Anderson, Rep. Div. Paint ,Plast. Print. Ink Chem. 19(2). 104 (1959).Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    H. C. Anderson, Anal. Chem. 32, 1592 (1960).Google Scholar
  109. H. C. Anderson,Kolloid 2184, 26 (1962).Google Scholar
  110. 109.
    H. C. Anderson, Polymer 2, 452 (1961)Google Scholar
  111. 110.
    S. L. Madorsky and S. Straus, Mod. Plast. 36, 134 (1961).Google Scholar
  112. 111.
    S. P. Edwards and P. H. Franke, Jr., U.S. Pat. 3,597,476 (Aug. 3, 1971).Google Scholar
  113. Brit. Pat. 1,231,814 (May 12, 1971) (to Chemische Werke Albert).Google Scholar
  114. 113.
    T. J. Dijkstra and E. J. W. Vogelzang, Brit. Pat. 1,112,139 (May 1, 1968).Google Scholar
  115. 114.
    B. J. Bremmer. U.S. Pat. 3,399,174 (Aug. 27, 1968).Google Scholar
  116. 115.
    J. J. Rizzo, U.S. Pat. 3,312,636 (April 4, 1967).Google Scholar
  117. 116.
    W. L. Baak, U.S. Pat. 3,352,947 (Nov. 14, 1967).Google Scholar
  118. 117.
    B. B. Levin, E. I. Goldshtein, N. I. Telegina, G. V. Markova, M. I. Kiseleva, and R. V. Shaton, U.S.S.R. Pat. 191,790 (Jan. 26, 1967).Google Scholar
  119. 118.
    S. Horun, Mater. Plast. 5(4), (1968).Google Scholar
  120. 119.
    Y. Tanaka, M. Seki, and M. Murata, Shikizai Kyokaishi 40(1), 19 (1967).Google Scholar
  121. Neth. Appl. 6,602,522 (Aug. 29, 1966) (to Dynamit-Noble A.-G.).Google Scholar
  122. Brit. Pat. 1,061,616 (March 15, 1967) (to Canadian Industries Ltd.).Google Scholar
  123. 122.
    A. F. Nikolaev, T. A. Zyryanova, G. A. Balaev, N. A. Voronova, and G. M. Grigoreva, U.S.S.R. Pat. 184,443 (July 21, 1966).Google Scholar
  124. 123.
    V. I. Kirilovich, S. M. Shner, I.-K. Robtsova, A. E. Rabkina, and M. A. Tikhonova, U.S.S.R. Pat. 183,379 (June 17, 1966).Google Scholar
  125. Neth. Appl. 6,515,176 (May 25, 1966) (to Dynamit-Noble A.-G.).Google Scholar
  126. 125.
    P. L. Smith and C. W. McGary, Jr., U.S. Pat. 3,236,863 (Feb. 22, 1966).Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    V. D. Valgin, E. A. Vasil’eva, V. A. Sergeeva, E. L. Gefter, and A. Yuldashev, U.S.S.R. Pat. 168,881 (Feb. 26, 1965).Google Scholar
  128. 127.
    A. L. Bullock, W. A. Reeves, and J. D. Guthrie, U.S. Pat. 2,916,473 (Dec. 8, 1959).Google Scholar
  129. 128.
    A. F. Nikolaev, K. A. Makarov, L. N. Mashlyakovskii, M. S. Trizno, and S. I. Kulicheva, U.S.S.R. Pat. 255,553 (Oct. 28, 1969).Google Scholar
  130. 129.
    S. R. Hargis, Jr., U.S. Pat. 3,524,903 (Aug. 18, 1970).Google Scholar
  131. 130.
    O. Mauz, F. Rochlitz, and D. Schleede, Ger. Pat. 1,113,826 (Feb. 13, 1958).Google Scholar
  132. 131.
    J. Riera Tuebols, Color. Pinturas 18(124), 5 (1969).Google Scholar
  133. 132.
    S. Porejko, Z. Brzozowski, and J. Kusmierek, Fr. Pat. 2,042,118 (Feb. 5, 1971).Google Scholar
  134. 133.
    A. M. Partansky, Br. Pat. 1,125,632 (Aug. 28, 1968).Google Scholar
  135. 134.
    M. H. Nickerson, H. S. Schnitaer, J. E. Curtis, and G. D. Patterson, U.S. Pat. 3,223,654 (Dec. 14, 1965).Google Scholar
  136. 135.
    V. D. Elarde, U.S. Pat. 2,885,380 (May 5, 1959).Google Scholar
  137. Br. Pat. 967,259 (Aug. 19, 1964) (to DeBell and Richardson, Inc.).Google Scholar
  138. 137.
    R. Sidlow and L. Williams, Brit. Pat. 953,206 (May 25, 1964).Google Scholar
  139. 138.
    C. M. Hayes, U.S. Pat. 3,391,112 (July 2, 1968).Google Scholar
  140. 139.
    R. M. Lusskin, F. Backer, and J. R. Larson, U.S. Pat. 3,396,147 (Aug. 1968).Google Scholar
  141. 140.
    E. E. Gilbert, O. A. Barton, R. M. Hetterly, E. R. Degginer, and C. R. McArthur, U.S. Pat. 3,361,717 (Jan. 2, 1968).Google Scholar
  142. 141.
    Yu A. Muravev, A. D. Valgin, D. F. Kutepov, and V. V. Korshak, U.S.S.R. Pat. 204,572 (Oct. 20, 1967).Google Scholar
  143. 142.
    F. Andreas and St. Skora, Ger. (East) Pat. 51,710 (Dec. 5, 1966).Google Scholar
  144. 143.
    B. J. Bremmer, U.S. Pat. 3,294,742 (Dec. 27, 1966).Google Scholar
  145. 144.
    F. Andreas and St. Skora, Plast. Kaut. 13(8), 451 (1966).Google Scholar
  146. 145.
    R. A. Skiff, U.S. Pat. 3,350,334 (Oct. 31, 1967).Google Scholar
  147. 146.
    B. J. Bremmer, Ind. Eng. Chem., Prod. Res. Dev. 5(4), 340, (1966).Google Scholar
  148. 147.
    A. M. Partansky, U.S. Pat. 3,252,850 (May 24, 1966).Google Scholar
  149. Brit. Pat. 962,020 (June 24, 1964) (to Ciba, Ltd.).Google Scholar
  150. 149.
    G. L. Popova, G. L. Khromov, I. P. Khoroshilova, and O. A. Kochurenkova, Plast. Massy 11 ,11 (1965).Google Scholar
  151. 150.
    R. C. Doss, U.S. Pat. 3,477,966 (Nov. 11, 1969).Google Scholar
  152. 151.
    M. S. Ogii, A. S. Dzhoi, A. P. Kuzyakov, and N. K. Moshchinskaya, U.S.S.R. Pat. 230,415 (Oct. 30, 1968).Google Scholar
  153. 152.
    H. A. Newey, U.S. Pat. 3,449,375 (June 10, 1969).Google Scholar
  154. 153.
    M. Wismer, U.S. Pat. 3,043,881 (July 10, 1962).Google Scholar
  155. 154.
    J. Vuillemenot, Fr. Pat. 1,323,734 (April 12, 1963).Google Scholar
  156. 155.
    M. E. Chiddix and R. W. Wynn, U.S. Pat. 2,951,829 (Sept. 6, 1960).Google Scholar
  157. 156.
    W. E. Prescott and W. W. Bressler, U.S. Pat. 2,989,502 (June 20, 1961).Google Scholar
  158. 157.
    P. Robitschek and S. J. Nelson, Ind. Eng. Chem. 48, 1951 (1956).Google Scholar
  159. 158.
    S. J. Nelson, J. S. Sconce, and P. Robitschek, U.S. Pat. 2,833,681 (May 6, 1958).Google Scholar
  160. 159.
    H. H. Chen and A. C. Nixon, Soc. Plast. Eng. Trans. 5(2), 90 (1965).Google Scholar
  161. 160.
    R. A. Skiff, Ger. Pat. 1,089,167 (Sept. 15, 1960).Google Scholar
  162. 161.
    R. C. Namc-:z, U.S. Pat. 3,058,946 (Oct. 16, 1962).Google Scholar
  163. 162.
    P. C. Warren, Soc. Plast. Eng. Tech. Paper, p. 362 (1970).Google Scholar
  164. 163.
    C. J. Hilado, Flammahility Handbook for Plastics ,pp. 31, 40, 81ff, Technomic Pub lishing Co., Stamford, Conn. (1969).Google Scholar
  165. 164.
    J. W. Lyons, The Chemistry and Uses of Fire Retardants ,pp. 401 412, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1970).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert T. Conley
    • 1
  • Daniel F. Quinn
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryWright State UniversityDaytonUSA

Personalised recommendations