Advertisement

Flame-Retardant Organic Coatings

  • Wen-Hsuan Chang
  • Roger L. Scriven
  • Ronald Blair Ross

Abstract

Many ways to decrease the flammability of polymers and coatings have been discovered as a result of the research done on various mechanisms of flame retardation. Currently, the most effective flame-retardant materials contain halogens, phosphorus, various transition metal oxides, strong acids, or some amine and metal salts. These materials can be used to produce acceptable flame retardance in coatings when the substances are either chemically combined with the film-forming polymer or used as additives.

Keywords

Flame Retardance Flame Spread Polyurethane Coating Antimony Oxide Zinc Borate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. W. Emmons, Sci. Am. 231(1), 25 (1974).Google Scholar
  2. 1a.
    S. Steingiser, J. Fire Flam. 3(3), 238 (1972).Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    Standard E-84, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  4. 2a.
    ASTM Policy Defining Fire Hazard Standards, Limiting the Scope of Properties Description Standards and Establishing a Committee on Fire Hazard Standards, Ameri can Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa. (Adopted Sept. 18, 1973).Google Scholar
  5. 3.
    W. J. Harland, J. Paint Technol. 44(565), 43 (1972); 44(575), 64 (1972).Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    C. J. Hilado and P. E. Burgess, J. Fire Flam. 3(2), 154 (1972).Google Scholar
  7. 5.
    Standard E-286, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  8. 6.
    C. P. Fenimore and F. J. Martin, Mod. Plast. 44(3), 141 (1966).Google Scholar
  9. 7.
    C. P. Fenimore and G. W. Jones, Combust. Flame 10(3), 295 (1966).Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    Standard D-2863, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    Standard D-1360, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  12. 10.
    Standard D-1361, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    Standard E-162, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  14. 12.
    C. A. Hafer, Final Report, Project No. 3-2947-26, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Tex. (1970).Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    HET acid anhydride supplied by Hooker Chemical Corp., Niagara Falls, New York.Google Scholar
  16. 14.
    Cloran supplied by Universal Oil Products, Des Piaines, Ill.Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    R. F. Cleaver, Polym., Paint Colour J. 163(3837), 107 (1973); 163(3838), 152 (1973).Google Scholar
  18. 16.
    J. W. Lyons, The Chemistry and Uses of Fire Retardants ,Chap. 6, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  19. 17.
    P. Thiery, Fireproofing ,p. 113, from French by J. H. Coundry, Elsevier Pub. Co., Ltd., New York (1970).Google Scholar
  20. 18.
    V. M. Bhatnagar, Fire Retardant Formulations Handbook ,Vol. 1, p. 1, Technomic Pub lishing Co., Westport, Conn. (1972).Google Scholar
  21. 19.
    T. F. Birkenhead, Aust. Paint J. 15(6), 16 (1969).Google Scholar
  22. 20.
    I. Touval, J. Fire Flam. 3(2), 130 (1972).Google Scholar
  23. 21.
    J. G. Bower, S. M. Draganov, and R. W. Sprague, J. Fire Flam. 3(3), 181 (1972).Google Scholar
  24. 22.
    J. W. Lyons, The Chemistry and Uses of Fire Retardants ,p. 244, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  25. 23.
    L. E. Newman and P. J. Silvester, Am. Paint J. 58(24), 59 (1973).Google Scholar
  26. 24.
    W.-H. Chang, R. L. Scriven, J. R. Peffer, and S. Porter, Ind. Eng. Chem., Prod. Res. Dev. 12, 278 (1973).Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    A. J. Papa and W. R. Proops, U.S. Pat. 3,779,953 (1973) (to Union Carbide Corp.).Google Scholar
  28. 26.
    J. P. Burns, J. Feltzin, and E. Koehn, U.S. Pat. 3,764,577 (1973) (to ICI America Inc.).Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    K. C. Frisch, Chap. 1 of this book.Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    J. H. Saunders and K. C. Frisch, Poly methanes: Chemistry and Technology ,Part 1, p. 94, Interscience, New York (1962).Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    B. D. Beitchman, Ind. Chem., Prod. Res. Dev. 5, 35 (1966).Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    S. R. Sandier, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 11, 811 (1967).Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    J. Burkus, U.S. Pat. 2,979,485 (1961) (to U.S. Rubber Co.).Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    J. I. Jones and N. G. Savill, J. Chem. Soc. 1957, 4392.Google Scholar
  35. 33.
    L. Nicholas and G. T. Gmitter, J. Cell. Plast. 1, 85 (1965).Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    K. Ashida and T. Yagi, Brit. Pat. 1,155,768 (1969) (to Nisshin Spinning Co).Google Scholar
  37. 34a.
    N. Sasaki, T. Yokoyama, and T. Tanaka, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Chem. Ed. 11, 1765 (1973).Google Scholar
  38. 35.
    V. M. Bhatnagar, Chem. Age India 24(1), 36 (1973).Google Scholar
  39. 36.
    J. W. Lyons, J. Fire Flam. 1(4), 302 (1970).Google Scholar
  40. 37.
    J. W. Lyons, The Chemistry and Uses of Fire Retardants ,p. 401, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  41. 37a.
    Anon., Paint Varn. Prod. 61(11), 51 (1971).Google Scholar
  42. 38.
    J. H. Saunders and K. C. Frisch, Polyurethanes: Chemistry and Technology ,Part I, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1963).Google Scholar
  43. 39.
    H. Tramm, C. Clar, P. Kuhnel, and W. Schuft, U.S. Pat. 2,106,938 (1938) (to Ruhrchemie Akt.).Google Scholar
  44. 40.
    H. L. Vandersall, J. Fire Flam. 2, 97 (1971).Google Scholar
  45. 41.
    J. W. Lyons, The Chemistry and Uses of Fire Retardants ,Wiley-Interscience, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  46. 42.
    D. J. Jones, Intumescent Paints ,R. H. Chandler, Ltd., Braintree, Essex, England (1973).Google Scholar
  47. 43.
    H. F. Payne, Organic Coating Technology ,Vol. I, Wiley, New York (1954).Google Scholar
  48. 44.
    H. L. Vandersall, paper presented at the Wayne State University Polymers Conference, Program 5, Detroit (1966).Google Scholar
  49. 45.
    R. E. Ellis, U.S. Pat. 3,102,821 (1963).Google Scholar
  50. 46.
    G. B. Verburg, D. A. Yeadon, E. T. Rayner, F. G. Dollear, H. P. Dupuy, L. L. Hopper, Jr., and E. York, J. Paint Technol. 38, 407 (1966).Google Scholar
  51. 47.
    H. L. Vandersall, Phos-Chek P/30 Brand Fire Retardant-Its Use in Intumescent Paint, Monsanto Chemical Company, Inorganic Chemicals Div., Report No. 6521 (1965).Google Scholar
  52. 48.
    J. S. Schwartz and R. Pierrehumbert, Am. Paint J. 47(55), 76 (1963).Google Scholar
  53. 49.
    F. J. Hahn and H. L. Vandersall, U.S. Pat 3,513,114 (1970) (to Monsanto Company).Google Scholar
  54. 50.
    F. J. Hahn and H. L. Vandersall, Can. Pat. 822,594 (1969) (to Monsanto Company).Google Scholar
  55. 51.
    F. Liberti and R. Pierrehumbert, Am. Paint J. 53(7), 96 (1968).Google Scholar
  56. 52.
    C. A. Meyer, Am. Paint J. 53(7), 78 (1968).Google Scholar
  57. 53.
    W. Juda, G. Jones, and N. Altman, U.S. Pat. 2,628,946 (1953) (to Albi Manufacturing Co., Inc.).Google Scholar
  58. 54.
    G. B. Verburg, E. T. Rayner, D. A. Yeadon, L. L. Hopper, Jr., L. A. Goldblatt, F. G. Dollear, and H. P. Dupuy, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 41, 670 (1964).Google Scholar
  59. 55.
    D. A. Yeadon, E. T. Rayner, G. B. Verburg, L. L. Hopper, Jr., F. G. Dollear, H. P. Dupuy, and H. Miller, Off. Dig. Fed. Soc. Paint Technol. 37, 1095 (1965).Google Scholar
  60. 56.
    E. T. Rayner, D. A. Yeadon, G. B. Verburg, F. G. Dollear, H. P. Dupuy, L. L. Hopper, Jr., and H. Miller, J. Paint Technol. 38, 105 (1966).Google Scholar
  61. 57.
    C. C. Clark and A. J. Krawczyk, U.S. Pat. 3,525,708 (1970) (to Textron, Inc.).Google Scholar
  62. 58.
    G. Quelle, C. A. Redfarn, and R. Thompson, Brit. Pat. 862,569 (1961) (to Alim Chemical Corp.); U.S. Pat. 3,077,458 (1963) (to Alim Chemical Corp.).Google Scholar
  63. 59.
    N. D. Blair, G. Witschard, and R. R. Hindersinn, J. Paint Technol. 44, No. 573, 75 (1972).Google Scholar
  64. 60.
    Brit. Pat. 1,215,286 (1970) (to Rolls Royce, Ltd.).Google Scholar
  65. 61.
    G. J. Fleming, U.S. Pat. 3,634,036 (1972) (to U.S. Secretary of the Navy).Google Scholar
  66. 62.
    Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast-Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek ten behoeve van Nijverheid, Handel en Verkeer, Neth. Appl. 69-17, 423 (1970).Google Scholar
  67. 63.
    F. H. Thomas, H. M. Headrick, and E. L. Schulz, U.S. Pat. 3,422,046 (1969) (to Sherwin Williams Company).Google Scholar
  68. 64.
    Brit. Pat. 1,280,543 (1972) (to Rolls Royce Ltd. and International Paint Co.).Google Scholar
  69. 65.
    Vsesjuzny Nauchno-Issledovatelsky Institute Protivopozharnoi Oborony Ministerstva Vnutrennikhdal SSSR, Ger. (East) Pat. 97,224 (1973).Google Scholar
  70. 66.
    A. J. Krawczyk, U.S. Pat. 3,627,726 (1971) (to Textron Inc.).Google Scholar
  71. 67.
    Brit. Pat. 925,570 (1963) (to Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd.).Google Scholar
  72. 68.
    K. Brack, U.S. Pat. 3,345,310 (1967) (to Hercules Inc.).Google Scholar
  73. 69.
    C. C. Clark and A. J. Krawczyk, U.S. Pat. 3,448,075 (1969) (to Textron Inc.).Google Scholar
  74. 70.
    C. C. Clark and A. J. Krawczyk, U.S. Pat. 3,365,420 (1968) (to Textron Inc.).Google Scholar
  75. 71.
    J. A. Parker, G. M. Fohlen, P. M. Sawko, and R. N. Griffin, SAMPE J. ,p. 21 (Aug/Sept. 1968).Google Scholar
  76. 72.
    J. A. Parker and G. M. Fohlen, U.S. Pat. 3,535,130 (1970) (to U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration).Google Scholar
  77. 73.
    G. M. Fohlen, J. A. Parker, S. R. Riccitiello, and P. M. Sawko, Proc. NASA Conf. Mater. Improv. Fire Saf. 12, 20 pp. (1970).Google Scholar
  78. 74.
    P. M. Sawko, U.S. Pat. 3,702,841 (1972) (to U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration).Google Scholar
  79. 75.
    Brit. Pat. 1,319,620 (1973) (to U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration).Google Scholar
  80. 76.
    P. M. Sawko, E. J. Fontes, and S. R. Riccitiello, J. Paint Technol. 44(571), 51 (1972).Google Scholar
  81. 77.
    S. H. Roth, U.S. Pat. 3,703,409 (1972) (to Cities Service Company).Google Scholar
  82. 78.
    S. H. Roth, U.S. Pat. 3,703,410 (1972) (to Cities Service Company).Google Scholar
  83. 79.
    J. J. Seipel, S. H. Roth, and J. Green, U.S. Pat. 3,748,154 (1973) (to Cities Service Company).Google Scholar
  84. 80.
    J. Green, S. J. Roth, and J. J. Seipel, U.S. Pat. 3,703,487 (1972) (to Cities Service Com pany).Google Scholar
  85. 81.
    S. H. Roth, J. Green, and J. J. Seipel, U.S. Pat. 3,714,082 (1973) (to Cities Service Company).Google Scholar
  86. 82.
    R. F. Shannon, U.S. Pat. 3,630,764 (1971) (to Corning Fiberglas Corp.).Google Scholar
  87. 83.
    W. J. Clarke, S. Afr. Pat. 72-01,506 (1972) (to American Cyanamid Co.).Google Scholar
  88. 84.
    Brit. Pat. 1,095,857 (1967) (to Albi Manufacturing Co.).Google Scholar
  89. 85.
    W. L. Mackie, U.S. Pat. 3,697,422 (1972) (to U.S. Secretary of the Navy).Google Scholar
  90. 86.
    W. F. Moran and L. C. Kyrias, U.S. Pat. 3,663,267 (1972) (to Beatrice Foods Co.).Google Scholar
  91. 87.
    T. Okazaki, K. Asahara, and T. Kometani, Japan. Kokai 72-30,785 (1972) (to Nissan Chemical Industries Ltd.).Google Scholar
  92. 88.
    C. N. Berczi, S. Afr. Pat. 67-07,448 (1968) (to Deering Milliken Corp.).Google Scholar
  93. 89.
    D. G. Higgins, Coated Fabrics, in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology ,A. Standen, ed., 2d ed., Vol. 5, p. 679, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  94. 90.
    G. C. Kantner, Text. Chem. Color. 5(1), 21 (1973).Google Scholar
  95. 91.
    Fed. Spec. CCC-A-680a, Artificial Leather, (Cloth, Coated), Vinyl Resin, (Upholstery), U.S. General Services Administration, Washington, D.C. (May 26, 1966, amended Mar. 7, 1972).Google Scholar
  96. 92.
    Fed. Regist. 36(5), 289 (1971).Google Scholar
  97. 93.
    M. M. O’Mara, W. Ward, D. P. Knechtges, and R. J. Meyer, in Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials ,(W. C. Kuryla and A. J. Papa, eds.) Vol. 1, p. 250, Marcel Dekker, New York (1973).Google Scholar
  98. 94.
    DOT MVSS 302, Flame Retardance Standard for Motor Vehicle Interiors, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (Sept. 1, 1972).Google Scholar
  99. 95.
    S. C. Stinson, Plast. Technol. 18(3), 35 (1972).Google Scholar
  100. 96.
    G. Matthews, Vinyl and Allied Polymers ,Vol. 2, p. 25, CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (1972).Google Scholar
  101. 97.
    C. J. Hilado, Flammability Handbook for Plastics ,p. 164, Technomic Publishing Co., Stamford, Conn. (1969).Google Scholar
  102. 98.
    Ibid. ,p. 39.Google Scholar
  103. 99.
    H. H. Cornish, Arch. Environ. Health 19, 15 (1969).Google Scholar
  104. 100.
    Fed. Regist. 39(67), 12342 (1974); Chem. Eng. News 52(15), 6 (1974).Google Scholar
  105. 101.
    W. S. Penn, PVC Technology ,p. 10, Maclaren & Sons Ltd., London (1966).Google Scholar
  106. 102.
    W. S. Penn, High Polymeric Chemistry ,p. 71, Chapman and Hall Ltd., London (1949).Google Scholar
  107. 103.
    M. M. O’Mara, W. Ward, D. P. Knechtges, and R. J. Meyer, in Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials ,(W. C. Kuryla and A. J. Papa, eds.) Vol. 1, p. 239, Marcel Dekker, New York (1973).Google Scholar
  108. 104.
    W. S. Penn, PVC Technolgy ,p. 13, Maclaren & Sons Ltd., London (1966).Google Scholar
  109. 105.
    L. Holstejn, Plast. Hmoty Kauc. 9(5), 134 (1972).Google Scholar
  110. 106.
    G. Pastuska, Gummi, Asbest, Kunstst. 19(3), 275 (1966).Google Scholar
  111. 107.
    R. R. Hindersinn and G. M. Wagner, Fire Retardancy in Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology ,(N. M. Bikales, ed.) Vol. 7, p. 12, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1967).Google Scholar
  112. 108.
    W. S. Penn, PVC. Technology ,p. 159, Maclaren & Sons Ltd., London (1966).Google Scholar
  113. 109.
    W. C. Kuryla in Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials ,(W. C. Kuryla and A. J. Papa, eds.) Vol. 1, p. 1, Marcel Dekker, New York (1973).Google Scholar
  114. 110.
    NL Industries Inc., Product Bulletin F-2 (1968).Google Scholar
  115. 111.
    J. J. Pitts in Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials ,(W. C. Kuryla and A. J. Papa, eds.) Vol. 1, p. 167, Marcel Dekker, New York (1973).Google Scholar
  116. 112.
    J. H. Saunders and J. K. Backus, Rubber Chem. Technol. 39, 461 (1966).Google Scholar
  117. 113.
    R. W. Little, Flameproofing Textile Fabrics ,Reinhold, New York (1947).Google Scholar
  118. 114.
    W. C. Kuryla in Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials ,(W. C. Kuryla and A. J. Papa, eds) Vol. 1. p. 24, Marcel Dekker, New York (1973).Google Scholar
  119. 115.
    M. M. O’Mara. W. Ward, D. P. Knechtges, and R. J. Meyer in Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials (W. C. Kuryla and A. J. Papa, eds.) Vol. 1, p. 229, Marcel Dekker, New York (1973).Google Scholar
  120. 116.
    G. Matthews, Vinyl and Allied Polymers ,Vol. 2, p. 111, CRC Press, Cleveland. Ohio (1972).Google Scholar
  121. 117.
    K. I. Freidgeim. L. F. Golutivina, I. V. Plotnikov, N. V. Syrokvashina, and A. N. Kopyl, Nauch.-Issled. Tr., Vses. Nauch.-Issled. Inst. Plencoh. Mater. Iskusstx. Kozhi No. 19 ,103(1971).Google Scholar
  122. 118.
    W. G. Woods and J. G. Bower. Mod. Plast. 47(6), 140 (1970).Google Scholar
  123. 119.
    M. M. O’Mara. J. Polym. Sci. 9. 1387 (1971).Google Scholar
  124. 120.
    G. Matthews. Vinyl and Allied Polymers ,Vol. 2. p. 137. CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (1972).Google Scholar
  125. 121.
    Monsanto Co., Technical Bulletin O PL-342 (1966).Google Scholar
  126. 122.
    Diamond Shamrock Chemical Co., Technical Bulletin on Chlorowax (1971).Google Scholar
  127. 123.
    W. Carl and M. Wandek, Brit. Pat. 1,274,925 (May 17, 1972) (to Farbenfabriken Bayer A.G.).Google Scholar
  128. 124.
    J. W. Lyons, The Chemistry and Uses of Fire Retardants ,p. 345, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  129. 125.
    Austral. Pat. 435,597 (1973) (to Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd.).Google Scholar
  130. 126.
    J. T. Harrington, U.S. Pat. 3,574,149 (1971) (to General Tire & Rubber Co.).Google Scholar
  131. 127.
    J. A. Parker and S. R. Riccitiello, U.S. Pat. 3,549,564 (1970) (to U.S. National Aero nautics and Space Administration).Google Scholar
  132. 128.
    A. J. Papa and W. R. Proops, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 16, 2361 (1972).Google Scholar
  133. 129.
    G. F. Baumann and J. F. Szabat, Fire Retardant Flexible Urethane Foam, in Advances in Fire Retardants ,(V. M. Bhatnagar, ed.) Part I, p. 1, Technomic Publishing Co., Westport, Conn. (1972).Google Scholar
  134. 130.
    C. E. Miles and J. W. Lyons, J. Cell. Plast. 3, 539 (1967).Google Scholar
  135. 131.
    E. A. Dickert and G. C. Toone, Mod. Plast. 42(5), 197 (1965).Google Scholar
  136. 132.
    I. N. Einhorn and R. W. Nickelson, Am. Chem. Soc, Div. Org. Coatings Plast. Chem., Pap. 28 ,No. 1, 291 (1968).Google Scholar
  137. 133.
    P. E. Hoch, U.S. Pat. 3,151,143 (1964) (to Hooker Chemical Corp.).Google Scholar
  138. 134.
    P. A. Argabright and B. L. Phillips, U.S. Pat. 3,627,689 (1971) (to Marathon Oil Co.).Google Scholar
  139. 135.
    H. E. Holmquist, U.S. Pat. 3,479,304 (1969) (to E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.).Google Scholar
  140. 136.
    R. C. Nametz. R. D. Deanin, and P. M. Lambert, Mod. Plast. 41(1), 166 (1963).Google Scholar
  141. 137.
    A. C. Haven, J, Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 842 (1956).Google Scholar
  142. 138.
    H. C. Fielding, Brit. Pat. 892,931 (1965) (to Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd.).Google Scholar
  143. 139.
    A. Holtschmidt and G. Oertel, Angew. Chem., Intnatl. Ed. Eng. 1, 617 (1962).Google Scholar
  144. 140.
    L. M. Kindley, H. E. Podall, and N. Filipescu, SPE Trans. 2, 122 (1962).Google Scholar
  145. 141.
    R. L. McConnell and H. W. Coover, U.S. Pat. 2,926,145 (1960) (to Eastman Kodak Co.).Google Scholar
  146. 142.
    H. C. Fielding, U.S. Pat. 3,144,302 (1964) (to Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd.).Google Scholar
  147. 143.
    J. J. Anderson, Ind. Eng. Chem., Prod. Res. Dev. 2, 261 (1963).Google Scholar
  148. 144.
    N. E. Rustad and R. G. Krawiec, Rubber Age (New York) 105(11), 45 (1973).Google Scholar
  149. 145.
    J. K. Backus, D. L. Bernard, W. C. Darr, and J. H. Saunders, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 12, 1053(1968).Google Scholar
  150. 146.
    A. Heslinga and P. J. Napjus, Ger. Pat. 1,197,614 (1964) (to Chemische Fabrik Kalk G.m.b.H.).Google Scholar
  151. 147.
    Standard Oil Co., Neth. Appl. 6,604,906 (1966); Neth. Appl. 6,516.709 (1966).Google Scholar
  152. 148.
    K. C. Frisch, J. Cell. Plast, 1 ,3 (1965).Google Scholar
  153. 149.
    Brit. Pat. 951,792 (1964) (to Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corp.).Google Scholar
  154. 150.
    J. J. Anderson, Brit. Pat. 1,034,489 (1967) (to Mobil Oil Corp.).Google Scholar
  155. 151.
    P. G. Pope, J. E. Sawyer, and R. C. Nametz, J. Cell. Plast. 4, 438 (1968).Google Scholar
  156. 152.
    F. D. Popp and W. E. McEwen, Chem. Rev. 58, 321 (1958).Google Scholar
  157. 153.
    D. Shaw and B. W. Greenwald, U.S. Pat. 3,291,867 (1966) (to Merck and Co.).Google Scholar
  158. 154.
    E. Dyer and R. A. Dunbar, J. Polym. Sci., Part A-1 8, 629 (1970).Google Scholar
  159. 155.
    L. Friedman, U.S. Pat. 3,309,342 (1967) (to Union Carbide Corp.).Google Scholar
  160. 156.
    P. A. T. Hoye and H. Coates, Brit. Pat. 974,033 (1964) (to Albright & Wilson Manufac turing Ltd.).Google Scholar
  161. 157.
    M. I. Bakhitov, E. V. Kuznetsov, and M. Ya. Obryadina, in Soviet Urethane Technology ,(A. M. Schiller, ed.) Vol. 1, p. 79, Technomic Publishing Co., Westport, Conn. (1973).Google Scholar
  162. 158.
    R. K. Valetdinov, E. V. Kuznetsov, M. Kh. Khasanov, and T. Kh. Valeeva, in Soviet Urethane Technology ,(A. M. Schiller, ed.) Vol. 1, p. 94, Technomic Publishing Co., Westport, Conn. (1973).Google Scholar
  163. 159.
    A. J. Papa and W. R. Proops, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 17, 2463 (1973).Google Scholar
  164. 160.
    C. K. Lyon and T. H. Applewhite, J. Cell. Plast. 3, 91 (1967).Google Scholar
  165. 161.
    P. Robitschek, U.S. Pat. 3,058,925 (1962) (to Hooker Chemical Corp.).Google Scholar
  166. 162.
    P. Robitschek and J. L. Olmstead, U.S. Pat. 2,909,501 (1959) (to Hooker Chemical Corp.).Google Scholar
  167. 163.
    P. Robitschek, J. Cell. Plast. 3, 395 (1967).Google Scholar
  168. 164.
    R. R. Hindersinn and S. M. Creighton, U.S. Pat. 2,865,869 (1958) (to Hooker Chemical Corp.).Google Scholar
  169. 165.
    H. A. Bruson and J. S. Rose, U.S. Pat. 3,244,754 and U.S. Pat. 3,269,961 (1966) (to Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp.).Google Scholar
  170. 166.
    H. C. Bogt and P. Davis, Polym. Eng. Sci. 11, 312 (1971).Google Scholar
  171. 167.
    E. V. Gouinlock, F. W. Long, and S. M. Creighton, Plast. Technol. 8(12) 40 (1962).Google Scholar
  172. 168.
    H. J. Fabris and J. G. Sommer, in Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials ,(W. C. Kuryla and A. J. Papa, eds.) Vol. 1, p. 135, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York (1973).Google Scholar
  173. 169.
    K. Oplustil, Factors Affecting Flame Spread Rating of Neoprene Vulcanizates, E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. Technical Bulletin 5D-113 (1968).Google Scholar
  174. 170.
    W. S. Penn, Rubber J. 151, 23 (1969).Google Scholar
  175. 171.
    D. C. Thompson, J. G. Hagman, and N. N. Mueller, Rubber Age (New York) 83, 819(1958).Google Scholar
  176. 172.
    L. N. Kireenkova and Yu. S. Zuev, Sov. Rubber Technol. 27(12), 23 (1968).Google Scholar
  177. 173.
    E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Hypalon in Wire and Cable, Hypalon Report No. 10, (1963), p. 9.Google Scholar
  178. 174.
    H. E. Trexler, Rubber Chem. Technol. 46, 1114 (1973).Google Scholar
  179. 175.
    N. S. Vojvodich, J. Macromol Sci.-Chem. A3, 367 (1969).Google Scholar
  180. 176.
    J. P. Gouzene, Ger. Pat. 1,298,877 (1969) (to Compagnie de Saint-Gobain).Google Scholar
  181. 177.
    Hooker Chemical Corp., Dechlorane 604, Preliminary Data Sheet No. 349 (1970).Google Scholar
  182. 178.
    E. E. Pepe, Ger. Pat. 1,936,345 (1970) (to Stauffer Chemical Co.).Google Scholar
  183. 179.
    J. Milgrom, J. T. Howarth, and J. G. Sheth, A Flame-Resistant Silicone Rubber, National Aeronautics and Space Administration N70-34148, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Boston, Mass. (1970).Google Scholar
  184. 180.
    F. H. Winslow, L. D. Loan, and W. Matreyek, Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Org. Coatings Plast. Chem. Pap. 31 ,No. 1, 124 (1971).Google Scholar
  185. 181.
    D. L. Supkis, Description and Application of Fluorel L-3203-6. Report No. MSC-01275, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston.Google Scholar
  186. 182.
    Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., Fluorel Elastomer, Technical Information Bulletin Y-TTDC (fluorel), p. 9.Google Scholar
  187. 183.
    H. J. Fabris and J. G. Sommer in Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials ,(W. C. Kuryla and A. J. Papa, eds.) Vol. 1, p. 154, Marcel Dekker, New York (1973).Google Scholar
  188. 184.
    D. A. Stivers, Aerospace Adhesive Elastomers, Natl. SAMPE Tech. Conf. Proc., 2d, (1970) p. 363.Google Scholar
  189. 185.
    Anon., Spinner Weber Textilveredl. 69, 88 (1971).Google Scholar
  190. 186.
    D. G. Sauers, NASA Conference on Materials for Improved Fire Safety, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston (1970), p. 17–1.Google Scholar
  191. 187.
    B. P. Hajela, I. D. Singh, K. L. Bhatia, and S. S. Shukla, Paintindia 22(5), 20 (1972).Google Scholar
  192. 188.
    S. Hikarida, Japan Pat. 71 37,434 (1971) (to Toyo Spinning Co. Ltd.).Google Scholar
  193. 189.
    Mach. Des. 36, 234 (1964).Google Scholar
  194. 190.
    Ibid. ,36, 232 (1964).Google Scholar
  195. 191.
    C. E. Sroog, A. L. Endrey, S. V. Abramo, C. E. Berr, W. M. Edwards, and K. L. Olivier, Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem., Prepr. 5(1), 132 (1964).Google Scholar
  196. 192.
    C. E. Sroog, A. L. Endrey, S. V. Abramo, C. E. Berr, W. M. Edwards, and K. L. Olivier, J. Polym. Sci., Part A 3, 1373 (1965).Google Scholar
  197. 193.
    C. E. Sroog, J. Polym. Sci. Part C 16, 1191 (1967).Google Scholar
  198. 194.
    M. L. Wallach, Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem., Prepr. 6(1) 53 (1965).Google Scholar
  199. 195.
    Ibid. 8(1) ,656 (1967).Google Scholar
  200. 196.
    Ibid. 8(2) ,1170 (1967).Google Scholar
  201. 197.
    M. L. Wallach, J. Polym. Sci., Part A-2 5, 653 (1967).Google Scholar
  202. 198.
    R. Ikeda, J. Polym. Sci., Part B 4, 353 (1966).Google Scholar
  203. 199.
    A. L. Endrey, U.S. Pat. 3,179,630 (1965) (to E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.).Google Scholar
  204. 200.
    W. M. Edwards, U.S. Pat. 3,179,634 (1965) (to E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.).Google Scholar
  205. 201.
    W. M. Edwards, U.S. Pat. 3,179,614 (1965) (to E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.).Google Scholar
  206. 202.
    A. L. Endrey, U.S. Pat. 3,179,631 (1965) (to E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.).Google Scholar
  207. 203.
    J. A. Kreuz, A. L. Endrey, F. P. Gay, and C. E. Sroog, J. Polym. Sci., Part A-1 4, 2607 (1966).Google Scholar
  208. 204.
    Brit. Pat. 1,057,727 (1967) (to Dr. Beck & Co. G.m.b.H.).Google Scholar
  209. 205.
    F. H. Holub, U.S. Pat. 3,277,043 (1966) (to General Electric Co.).Google Scholar
  210. 206.
    D. C. Atkins, C. M. Murphy, and C. E. Saunders, Ind. Eng. Chem. 39, 1395 (1947).Google Scholar
  211. 207.
    Ibid. 42, 2462(1950).Google Scholar
  212. 208.
    A. E. Durkin and A. H. Horner, Mater. Methods 38(3), 114 (1953).Google Scholar
  213. 209.
    W. Noll, Chemistry and Technology of Silicones ,p. 476, Academic Press, New York (1968).Google Scholar
  214. 210.
    Ibid., p. 563.Google Scholar
  215. 211.
    J. M. Cox, B. A. Wright, and W. W. Wright, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 8, 2935 (1964).Google Scholar
  216. 212.
    Ibid., 2951.Google Scholar
  217. 213.
    Fluon, Eng. News (Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd.), p. 5 (May 1964).Google Scholar
  218. 214.
    J. A. Zapp, Arch. Environ. Health 4(3), 342 (1962).Google Scholar
  219. 215.
    T. A. Ford and W. E. Hanford, U.S. Pat. 2,435,537 (1948) (to E. I. duPont de Nemours and Co.).Google Scholar
  220. 216.
    T. A. Ford, U.S. Pat. 2,468,054 (1949) (to E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.).Google Scholar
  221. 217.
    A. L. Dittman, H. J. Passino, and W. O. Teeters, U.S. Pat. 2,738,343 (1956) (to M. W. Kellogg Co.).Google Scholar
  222. 218.
    A. L. Dittman, H. J. Passino, and W. O. Teeters, U.S. Pat. 2,752,331 (1956) (to M. W. Kellogg Co.).Google Scholar
  223. 219.
    E. S. Lo, U.S. Pat. 3,023,187 (1962) (to Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co.).Google Scholar
  224. 220.
    D. R. Rexford, U.S. Pat. 3,051,677 (1962) (to E. I. duPont de Nemours and Co.).Google Scholar
  225. 221.
    E. S. Lo, Brit. Pat. 823,974 (1959) (to Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co.).Google Scholar
  226. 222.
    V. L. Simril and A. Curry, Mod. Plast. 36(11), 121 (1959).Google Scholar
  227. 223.
    G. H. Kalb, D. D. Coffman, T. A. Ford, and F. L. Johnston, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 4, 55–61 (1960).Google Scholar
  228. 224.
    L. R. Bartron, U.S. Pat. 2,953,818 (1960) (to E. I. duPont de Nemours and Co.).Google Scholar
  229. 225.
    Kel-F Brand Plastic, Bulletin No. Y-1KTDC, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., St. Paul, Minn. (1961).Google Scholar
  230. 226.
    R. P. Bringer and C. C. Sovia, Chem. Eng. Prog. 56(10), 37 (1960).Google Scholar
  231. 227.
    Kel-F Brand Oils, Waxes, and Greases, Bulletin No. Y-10T93.075R, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., St. Paul, Minn. (1963).Google Scholar
  232. 228.
    Kel-F Brand Plastic Dispersions, Bulletin No. Y-1KDD, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., St. Paul, Minn. (1962).Google Scholar
  233. 229.
    B. B. Rosa, Prakt. Chem. 15(2), 64 (1964).Google Scholar
  234. 230.
    Anon., Journal of TEFLON (E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.) 5(9), 1 (1964).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wen-Hsuan Chang
    • 1
  • Roger L. Scriven
    • 1
  • Ronald Blair Ross
    • 1
  1. 1.Coatings and Resins DivisionPPG Industries, IncorporatedAllison ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations