Combustion of Polymers and Its Retardation
The rapidly growing demands for polymers and the increasing public awareness of their potential as fire hazards have revived the old problem of polymer flammability and made it a pressing challenge to our modern technology. With our present capabilities the initial goal in this respect should be the flame retardation of polymers and not their flame proofing, especially when organic systems are being considered. Upon examining the different means for achieving this goal a number of guidelines have been established. The ideal flame-retardant polymer system has (1) a high resistance to ignition and flame propagation, (2) a low rate of combustion, (3) a low rate and amount of smoke generation, (4) low combustibility and toxicity of combustion gases, (5) retention of reduced flammability during use, (6) acceptability in appearance and properties for specific end-uses, and (7) little or no economic penalty. Therefore, a flame-retardant treatment, in addition to being formulated from efficient, economic chemicals, should require no unusual processing conditions, must be applicable in commercial equipment, reproducibly, with no effect on other processing steps, and must be durable under all use conditions. All of these requirements dictate the type of evaluation necessary for flame-retardant systems.
KeywordsCombustion Molybdenum Sponge Smoke Nylon
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