Advertisement

Trauma pp 303-327 | Cite as

Spinal Cord Injury and Trauma

  • Theodore M. Cole

Abstract

Trauma of the spinal cord has almost always been associated with feelings of hopelessness and foreboding. The first recorded reference to injury of the spinal cord was found in the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, written about 2500–3000 B. C. “Thou shouldst say concerning him, one having a dislocation of the vertebrae of his neck while he is unconscious of his two legs and two arms and his urine dribbles. An ailment not to be treated.”1 Almost 5,000 years later, Robert Penn Warren described a quadriplegic in his novel All The Kings Men (1946). He describes a lifetime of paralysis, hopelessness, and impending death.

Keywords

Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Injury Intermittent Catheterization Cervical Segment Anterior Spinal Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Eisberg, C. A.: The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the skull and spine 5,000 years ago. Ann. Med. Hist. 3:271–279 (May) 1931.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dick, T. B. S.: Traumatic paraplegic pre-Guttmann. Paraplegia 7:173–177 (Nov) 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carter, R. E.: Research and training center accomplishments in spinal cord injury. Presented at the Conference of Rehabilitation, Research and Training Centers, February 1972, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wilcox, N. E., Stauffer, E. S., Nickel, V. L.: A statistical analysis of 423 consecutive patients admitted to the spinal cord injury center, Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, 1 January, 1964, through 31 December 1967. Paraplegia 8:27–35 (May) 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gehrig, R., Michaelis, L. S.: Statistics of acute paraplegia and tetraplegia on a national scale. Paraplegia 6:93–95 (Aug) 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cheshire, D. J. E.: The complete and centralised treatment of paraplegia. Paraplegia 6:59–73 (Aug) 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ooi, Y., Tateiwa, K., Uehara, M., Murai, S.: Quadriplegia in Japan: a study of 60 cases. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 54:136–139 (March) 1973.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hallin, R. P.: Follow-up of paraplegics and tetraplegics after comprehensive rehabilitation. Paraplegia 6:128–134 (Nov) 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heyl, H. L.: Editorial: Spinal cord injuries. J. Neurosurg. 35:251–252 (Sept) 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Freed, M. M., Bakst, H. J., Barrie, D. L.: Life expectancy, survival rate, and causes of death in civilian patients with spinal cord trauma. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 47: 457–463 (Jul) 1966.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoffman, C. A., Bunts, R. C.: Present urologic status of the World War II paraplegic, 15 year follow-up; comparison with status of 5 years Korean War paraplegic. J. Urol. 86:60–68 (July) 1961.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jacobson, S. A., Bors, E.: Spinal cord injury in Vietnamese combat. Paraplegia 7:263–281 (Feb) 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jacobs, G. B., Berg, R. A.: The treatment of acute spinal cord injuries in a war zone. J. Neurosurg. 34: 164–167 (Feb) 1971.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Comarr, A. E.: The practical urological management of the patient with spinal cord injury. Br. J. Urol. 31:1–45 (March) 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tarlov, I. M.: Acute spinal cord compression paralysis. J. Neurosurg. 36:10–20 (Jan) 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Turnbull, I. M.: Microvasculature of the human spinal cord. J. Neurosurg. 35:141–146 (Aug) 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dohrmann, G. J., Wagner, F. C., Bucy, P. C.: The microvasculature in transitory traumatic paraplegia. An electron microscopic study in the monkey. J. Neurosurg. 35:263–271 (Sept) 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fairholm, D. J., Turnbull, I. M.: Microangiographic study of experimental spinal cord injuries. J. Neurosurg. 35:277–285 (Sept) 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fried, L. C., Goodkin, R.: Microangiographic observations of the experimentally traumatized spinal cord. J. Neurosurg. 35:709–714 (Dec) 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dohrman, G. J., Wick, K. M., Bucy, P. C.: Spinal cord blood flow patterns in experimental traumatic paraplegia. J. Neurosurg. 38:52–57 (Jan) 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ducker, T. B., Kindt, G. W., Kempe, L. G.: Pathological findings in acute experimental spinal cord trauma. J. Neurosurg. 35:700–707 (Dec) 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dohrmann, G. J., Wagner, F. C., Bucy, P. C.: Transitory traumatic paraplegia: electron microscopy of early alterations in myelinated nerve fibers, J. Neurosurg. 36:407–414 (Apr) 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Osterholm, J. L, Mathews, G. J.: Altered norepinephrine metabolism following experimental spinal cord injury. Part I: Relationship to hemorrhagic necrosis and post-wounding neurological deficits. J. Neurosurg. 36:386–393 (Apr) 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Osterholm, J. L, Mathews, G. J.: Altered norepinephrine metabolism following experimental spinal cord injury. Part 2: Protection against traumatic spinal cord hemorrhagic necrosis by norepinephrine synthesis blockade with alpha methyl tyrosine. J. Neurosurg. 36:395–400 (Apr) 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Selker, R. G.: Experimental extravascular surface-cooling of the brain stem, fourth ventricle, and high cervical spinal cord. J. Neurosurg. 35:432–436 (Oct) 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kelly, D. L., Lassiter, K. R. L., Vongsvivut, A., Smith, J. M.: Effects of hyperbaric oxygenation and tissue oxygen studies in experimental paraplegia. J. Neurosurg. 36: 425–429 (Apr) 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Guth, L, Windle, W. F.: The enigma of central nervous regeneration. Exp. Neurol., Supp. 5 28:38–39 (Sept) 1970.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Guttmann, Sir L.: Spinal shock and reflex behavior in man. Paraplegia 8:100–109 (Aug) 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Meyer, G. A., Berman, I. R., Doty, D. B., Moseley, R. V., Gutierrez, V. S.: Hemodynamic responses to acute quadriplegia with or without chest trauma. J. Neurosurg. 34:168–175 (Feb) 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cole, T. M., Kottke, F. J., Olson, M., Stradal, L., Niederloh: Alterations of cardiovascular control in high spinal myelomalacia. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 48:359–368 (July) 1967.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Claus-Walker, J., Campos, R. J., Carter, R. E.: Hypertensive episodes in quadriplegic patients: neuroendocrine mechanisms. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 53:47–50 (Feb) 1972.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sell, G. H., Naftchi, N. E., Lowman, E. W., Rusk, H. A.: Autonomic hyperrefelxia and catecholamine metabolites in spinal cord injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 53:415–424 (Sept) 1972.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Claus-Walker, J., Campos, R. J., Carter, R. E., Vallbona, C., Lipscomb, H. S.: Calcium excretion in quadriplegia. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 53:14–20 (Jan) 1972.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Price, M.: Renal function in patients with traumatic myelopathy. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 53:261–265 (June) 1972.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stover, S. L., Miller, J. M., Nepomuceno, C. S.: Intermittent catheterization in patients previously on indwelling catheter drainage. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 53:25–30 (Jan) 1973.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    McMaster, W. C., Nicholas, J. J., Rosen, J. S.: Intermittent catheterization for spinal cord injury patients with chronic indwelling urethral catheters. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 53:563–567 (Dec) 1972.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Long, C., Lawton, E. B.: Functional significance of spinal cord lesion level. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 36:249–255 (Apr) 1955.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Long, C.: Congenital and traumatic lesions of the spinal cord. In — Handbook of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Krusen, F. H., Kottke, F. J., Ellwood, P. M., Jr. (Eds.): W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1971, pp. 566–578.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zancolli, E.: Functional restoration of the upper limbs in complete traumatic quadriplegia. In — Structural and Dynamic Bases of Hand Surgery: J. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and Toronto, Chap. 11, 1968, pp. 155–174.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cheshire, D. J. E.: A classification of the functional end-results of injury to the cervical spinal cord. Paraplegia 8:70–73 (Aug) 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Deyoe, F. S.: Spinal cord injury: Long term follow-up of veterans. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 53:523–529 (Nov) 1972.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kerr, W. G., Thompson, M. A.: Acceptance of disability of sudden onset in paraplegia. Paraplegia 10:94–102 (May) 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Talbot, H. S. (1969) Proceeding of the seventh Veterans Administration Spinal Cord Injury Conference, Veterans Administration Hospital, Bronx, New York. pp. 222–223.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sex and the paraplegia. Medical World News. 13:35-38 (Jan) 1972.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cole, T. M., Chilgren, R., Rosenberg, P.: A new program of sex education and counseling for spinal cord injured adults and health care professionals. Accepted for publication in International Journal of Paraplegia.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Guttmann, Sir L.: History of the national spinal injury services, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury. Int. J. Paraplegia 5:115–126 (Nov) 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bedbrook, G. M.: The organization of a spinal injuries unit at Royal Perth Hospital. Paraplegia 5:150–158 (Nov) 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Weiss, M.: 15 years experience on rehabilitation of paraplegics at the Rehabilitation Institute of Warsaw University, Poland. Paraplegia 5:1158–1166 (Nov) 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodore M. Cole
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MinnesotaUSA

Personalised recommendations