Infant and Caretaking Environment Investigation and Conceptualization of Adaptive Behavior in a System of Increasing Complexity

  • Louis W. Sander


The assignment of bringing together one’s “research perspective, research philosophy, methods, and findings” in one autobiographical account presents some rather obvious and many more subtle difficulties. It is obvious that such a contribution cannot be in the usual format of a scientific paper. And it is difficult to generate a personal synthesis and at the same time to offer it as a research contribution. It has seemed feasible for me only to try to organize and communicate in some reasonably concrete way the course that my work and thought have taken over the last score of years. During that score of years my career in clinical child psychiatry has become largely a commitment to certain problems of early developmental research, in particular, a concern with the question of organization itself in personality development.


Adaptive Behavior Child Psychiatry Developmental Research Infant Behavior Surrogate Mother 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anders, T., & Hoffman, E.: The Sleep Polygram: A potentially useful tool for clinical assessment in human infants. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1973, 77, 506–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, G. C.: Paper presented at annual meeting of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Madison, Wisconsin, 1973.Google Scholar
  3. Aschoff, J.: Response curves in circadian periodicity. In J. Aschoff (Ed.), Circadian clocks. Proceedings of the Feldafing Summer School. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co., 1965.Google Scholar
  4. Ashby, R.: Design for a brain, London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd, 1952. See also Ashby, R., Design for a brain., 2nd Ed., Science Paperback, 1970, (Distributed in U.S.A. by Barnes and Noble, Inc.).Google Scholar
  5. Ashby, R.: An introduction to cybernetics. London; Chapman & Hall, 1958.Google Scholar
  6. Bertalanffy, L.: VON. The problem of life. New York and London, 1949.Google Scholar
  7. Bower, T. G. R.: Object perception in infants. Perception. 1972. Vol. 1, pp. 15–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowlby, J:Attachment and loss. New York; Basic Books, 1969, Vol. 1.Google Scholar
  9. Burns, P., Sander, L., Stechler, G., & Julia, H.: Distress in feeding: Short-term effects of caretaker environment of the first 10 days. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1972, 11, 427–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Charlesworth, W. R.: Instigation and maintenance of curiosity behavior as a function of sur-prise versus novel and familiar stimuli. Child Development, 1964, 35, 1169–1186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Condon, W. , & Sander, L.: Synchronization of neonate movement with adult speech: interac-tional participation and language acquisition. Science, 1974, 183, 99–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erikson, E. H.: Childhood and society. New York: W. W. Norton, 1950.Google Scholar
  13. Erikson, E. H.: Identity and the life cycle. Psychological Issues, 1959, 1,50–101.Google Scholar
  14. Escalona, S. K.: The study of individual differences and the problem of state. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1962, 1,11–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Escalona, S.: Patterns of infantile experience and the developmental process. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1963, 18,198–201.Google Scholar
  16. Feffer, M. A.: developmental analysis of interpersonal behavior. Psychological Review,1970, 77, 197–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Glassman, R. B.: Persistence and loose coupling in living systems. Behavioral Science, 1973, 18, 83–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gouin-Decariet.: Intelligence and affectivity in early childhood. New York: International University Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  19. Halberg, F.: Temporal coordination of physiological functions. Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 1960, 25,289–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hartman, H., Dris, E., & Loewenstein, R. M.: Comments on the formation of psychic structure. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1946, 2,11–38.Google Scholar
  21. Hinde, R. A.: Animal behavior: A synthesis of ethology and comparative psychology. New York and London: McGraw-Hill, 1966.Google Scholar
  22. Hunt, J. McV.: Intelligence and experience. New York: Ronald Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  23. Hunt, J.: McV. Intrinsic motivation and its role in psychological development. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965Google Scholar
  24. Mackay, D. M.: Towards an information flow model of cerebral organization. Symposium on Cerebral Activity, Advancement of Science, 1956, 42, 392.Google Scholar
  25. Mahler, M.: On human symbiosis and the vicissitudes of individuation. Vol. 1: Infantile Psychosis. New York: International University Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  26. Mahler, M., & Mcdevit, J. B.: Observations on adaptation and defense in statu nascendi: developmental precursors in the first two years of life. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 1968, 37, 1–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mason, J. W.: Over-all hormonal balance as a key to endocrine organization. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1968, 30, 791–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K.: Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Henry Holt, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Piaget, J.: The origins of intelligence in children,English Translation. New York: International University Press, 1936.Google Scholar
  30. Piaget, J. & Inhelder, B.: The gaps in Empiricism. In Koestler, A., & Smythies, J. R. (Eds.), Be-yond reductionism—New perspectives in the life sciences. Boston: Beacon Press, 1969, 118–160Google Scholar
  31. Piaget, J.: The affective unconscious and the cognitive unconscious. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1973, 21,249–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B.: The Psychology of the Child. New York: Basic Books, 1969.Google Scholar
  33. Polany, M.: The study of man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959. (As quoted by Wallerstein.)Google Scholar
  34. Prechtl, H. F. R.: Polgraphic studies of the full term newborn. In, H. Bax & R. C. MacKeith (Eds.), Studies in infancy clinic in developmental medicine. London: Heinemann, 1968Google Scholar
  35. Pribram, K.: Reinforcement revisited: A structural view. In M. R. Jones (Ed.) Nebraska Sympo-sium on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  36. Rosenblatt, J. S., Turkewitz, G., & Scheirla, T. C.: Early socialization in the domestic cat as based on feeding and other relationships between female and young. In B. M. Foss (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior. London: Methuen; New York: Wiley, 1961.Google Scholar
  37. Sander, L. W.: Issues in early mother-child interaction. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry,1962, 1,141–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sander, L. W.: Adaptive relationships in early mother-child interaction. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1964, 3, 231–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sander, L. W.: The longitudinal course of early mother-child interaction: cross case comparison in a sample of mother-child pairs. In B. M. Foss, (Ed.), Determinants of infant behavior IV. London: Methuen, 1969.Google Scholar
  40. Sander, L. W., & Julia, H. L.: Continuous interactional monitoring in the neonate. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1966, 28, 822–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Sander, L. W., Julia H. L., Stechler, G., & Burns, P.: Regulation and organization in the early infant-caretaker system. In J. R. Robinson (Ed.), Brain and early development. New York: Academic Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  42. Sander, L. W., Julia, H. L., Stechler, G., & Burns, P.: Continuous 24-hour interactional monitoring in infants reared in two caretaking environments. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1972, 34,270–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Sandler, L. W., Stechler, G., Burns, P., & Julia, H.: Early mother infant interaction and 24-Hour patterns of activity and sleep. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry,1970, 9, 103–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sandler, J., & Rosenblatt, B.: The concept of the representational world. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. New York: International University Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  45. Schneirla, T. C.: An evolutionary and developmental theory of biphasic processes underlying approach and withdrawl. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Maturation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  46. Spiegel, L. A.: The self—the sense of self and perception. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1959, 14, 81–109.Google Scholar
  47. Spitz, R. A.: No and yes—On the genesis of human communication. New York: International University Press, 1957.Google Scholar
  48. Spitz, R. A.: A genetic field theory of ego formation. New York: International University Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  49. Stechler, G.: Infant looking and fussing in response to visual stimuli over the first two months of life in different infant-caretaking systems. Presented at The Society for Research and Child Development, Philadelphia, 1973.Google Scholar
  50. Stern, D. N.: A micro-analysis of mother-infant interaction. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1971 10,501–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Uexküll, J. Von: A stroll through the worlds of animals and men. In C. H. Schiller, (Ed.), Instinctive Behavior- The Development of a Modern Concept. New York: International University Press, 1934.Google Scholar
  52. Voiv Holst,E., & Mittelstaedt, H.: Das Reafferenz Prinzip. Naturwiss, 1950,37,464–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wallerstein, R. S.: Psychoanalytic Perspectives on the Problem of Reality. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1973, Vol. 21, 5–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Weiss, P.: The biological basis of adaptation. In J. Romano (Ed.), Adaptation. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1949.Google Scholar
  55. Weiss, P.: The living system: Determinism stratified. In A. Koestler & J. R. Smythies (Eds.), The Alpbach Symposium 1968—Beyond Reductionism—New perspectives in the life sciences. Boston: Beacon Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  56. Winnicott, D. W.: The depressive position in normal emotional development. Collected Papers D.W. Winnicott. New York: Basic Books, 1954.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louis W. Sander
    • 1
  1. 1.Boston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations