On the Evolution of Macromolecules

  • Hiroshi Mizutani
  • Hiroyuki Okihana
  • Masami Hasegawa
  • Taka-aki Yano
  • Haruhiko Noda


After the formation of our planet, the evolution of matter led to contemporary living systems. This process may be divided roughly into three stages, that is: (a) abiogenic syntheses of macromolecules, (b) spontaneous phase-separation of the macromolecules followed by self-organization, and (c) biological evolution after the first production of life. The former two stages are called prebiotic evolution. Each stage has been investigated by many authors from the standpoint of molecular evolution.


Genetic Code Enclose Space Abiogenic Synthesis Base Doublet Organize Living System 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bungenberg de Jong, H., in: “Colloid Science,” Vol. II (Kruyt, H., ed.), p. 338, Elsevier, New York, 1949.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ferris, J. P., Donner, D. B., and Lobo, A. P., J. Mol. Biol. 74, 499 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fox, S. W., Harada, K., and Kendrick, J., Science 129, 1221 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gabel, N. W., and Ponnamperuma, C., in: “Exobiology” ( Ponnamperuma, C., ed.), p. 95, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gatlin, L. L., Math. Biosci. 13, 213 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gatlin, L. L., “Information Theory and the Living System,” Columbia University Press, New York, 1972.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goel, N. S., Rao, G. S., Ycas, M., Bremermann, H. J., and King, L., J. Theor. Biol. 35, 399 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldberg, A. L., and Wittes, R. E., Science 153, 420 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hasegawa, M., and Yano, T., “Tampakushitsu Kakusan Koso Bessatsu,” p. 134, Kyoritsu, Tokyo, 1972.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hasegawa, M., and Yano, T., submitted to Math. Biosci.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hasegawa, M., and Yano, T., Fourth International Conference on the Origin of Life, Barcelona, 1973.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Josse, J., Kaiser, A. D., and Kornberg, A., J. Biol. Chem. 236, 864 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kimura, M., Nature 217, 624 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    King, J. L., and Jukes, T. H., Science 164, 788 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    King, J. L., Proc. Sixth Berkeley Symp. Math. Stat. Prob., p. 69, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1972.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Labadie, M., Ducastaing, S., and Breton, J. C., Bull. Soc. Pharm. Bordeaux 107, 61 (1968).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lind, S. C., Bardwell, D. C., and Perry, J. H., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 48, 1556 (1926).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matthews, C. N., and Moser, R. E., Nature 215, 1230 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mizutani, H., and Noda, H., “Tampakushitsu Kakusan Koso Bessatsu,” p. 89, Kyoritsu, Tokyo, 1972.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mizutani, H., Mikuni, H., and Takahasi, M., Chem. Letters 573 (1972).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Okihana, H., in preparation.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oparin, A. I., “The Origin of Life on Earth,” Macmillan, New York, 1938.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Smith, T. F., Math. Biosci. 4, 179 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sueoka, N., “Evolving Genes and Proteins” (Bryson, V., and Vogel, H. J., eds.), p. 480, Academic Press, New York, 1965.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Swartz, M. N., Trautner, T. A., and Kornberg, A., J. Biol. Chem. 237, 1961 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Veis, A., and Cohen, J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 6238 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Veis, A., “Biological Polyelectrolytes” (Veis, A., ed.), p. 211, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1970.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Villars, D. S., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 52, 61 (1930).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vogel, H., and Zuckerkandl, E., “Biochemical Evolution and the Origin of Life” (Schoffeniels, E., ed.), p. 352, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1971.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Volker, T., Angew. Chem. 72, 379 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Voorn, M. J., Rec. Trav. Chim. 75, 405 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yano, T., and Hasegawa, M., submitted to J. Mol. Evol.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zuckerkandl, E., Derancourt, J., and Vogel, H., J. Mol. Biol. 59, 473 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroshi Mizutani
    • 1
  • Hiroyuki Okihana
    • 1
  • Masami Hasegawa
    • 1
  • Taka-aki Yano
    • 1
  • Haruhiko Noda
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry Faculty of ScienceUniversity of TokyoHongo, TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations