Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann, a sub-specific variant of Culex pipiens Linnaeus, is worldwide in distribution and is prevalent in the tropics, sub-tropics and warmer temperate climates (Horsfall 1955). C.p. fatigans is known to breed in waters with varying degrees of pollution, primarily soakage pits, household drains, cesspools and puddles. However, even in the absence of such water collections, the species readily breeds in clear waters such as wells and pools in river beds (Raghavan 1961).


West Nile Virus Cytoplasmic Incompatibility Organophosphorus Insecticide Culex PIPIENS Organochlorine Insecticide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdulcader, M.H.M. (1967) The significance of Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann problem in Ceylon, Bull. Wld Hlth Org., 37, 245–250.Google Scholar
  2. Barr, A.R. (1962) Proceedings and papers of the 13th annual conference of the California Mosquito Control Association Inc. Visalia, Calif, 88-103.Google Scholar
  3. Bhatnagar, V.N., Joshi, G.C. and Wattal, B.L. (1969a) Laboratory and field evaluation of Abate (o,o,o′,o′ — tetramethyl o,-o′ — Thiodi-Para — Phenylene Phosphorothioate) in the control of Culex pipiens fatigans Wied. larvae, J. Com. Dis., 1, 203–215.Google Scholar
  4. Bhatnagar, V.N., Joshi, G.C., Dhar, S.K., Basu, P.C. and Wattal, B.L. (1969b) Trials with organophosphate larvicide. Ethyl bromophos (0.0. diethyl, 0-2-5-dichloro-4 bromophenyl thionophosphate against Culex fatigans Wied. larvae, Ind. J. Ento., 31, 13–20.Google Scholar
  5. Bransby-Williams, W.R. (1971) A field release of male Culex pipiens fatigans sterilized by apholate, East Afr. Med. Jour., 48, 68.Google Scholar
  6. Brooks, G.D., Carmichael, G.T., Schoof, H.F. (1965) Evaluation of large-scale treatment with dichlorvos for the control of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say Mosquito News, 25 427–431.Google Scholar
  7. Covell, G. (1941) Malaria control by antimosquito measures, Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta.Google Scholar
  8. Dandawate, C.N., Rajagopalan, P.K. Pavari, K.M. and Work, T.H. (1969) Virus isolations from mosquitos collected in North Arcot District, Madras State, and Chittor District, Andhra Pradesh between November, 1955 and October, 1957, Ind. J. Med. Res., 57, 1420–1426.Google Scholar
  9. Das, M. (1967) Sterilization of Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann by Apholate Bull. Wld. Hlth Org., 36, 949–954.Google Scholar
  10. Giglioli, G. (1948) Malaria, Filariasis and Yellow Fever in British Guiana, Medical Deptt. — Mosquito control service.Google Scholar
  11. Halstead, S.B., Yamarat, C. and Scanlon, J.E. (1963) Thai haemorrhagic fever in Thailand epidemic of 1962, Jour. Med. Asso. (Thailand), 46, 449–462.Google Scholar
  12. Hamon, J. and Mouchet, J. (1961) La résistance aux insecticides chez les insects d’importance médicale. Méthodes d’étude et situation en Afrique au sud du Sahara (The resistance to insecticides of insects of medical importance in South Africa of Sahara) Med. Trop., 21, 565–596.Google Scholar
  13. Hamon, J. and Mouchet, J. (1967) La résistance aux insecticides chez Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann, Bull. Wld Hlth Org., 37, 277–286.Google Scholar
  14. Hammon, W.M., Rudnick, A. and Sather, G.E. (1960) Viruses associated with epidemic haemorrhagic fevers of the Philippines and Thailand, Science, 131, 1102–1103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Horsfall, W.R. (1955) Mosquitoes, their bionomics and relation to diseases, The Ronald Press Company, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Indian Council of Medical Research (1971) Assessment of the National Filaria Control Programme (India) 1961–1970, Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 10..Google Scholar
  17. Kalra, N.L., Wattal, B.L. and Raghavan, N.G.S. (1967) Occurrence of larvivorous fish Lebistes reticulatus (Peters) breeding in sullage water at Nagpur-India, Bull. Nat. Soc. Mal. Com. Dis., 4, 253–254.Google Scholar
  18. Koshi, T., Dixit, R.S. and Perti, S.L. (1963) The selection of insecticide resistant strains of the mosquito, Culex fatigans Wield. in the Laboratory, Ind. J. Mal., 17, 23–31.Google Scholar
  19. Kilpatrick, J.W. and Schoof, H.F. (1956) Fly production in treated and untreated privies, Publ. Hlth. Rep. (Wash), 71, 787–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Krishnamurthy, B.S., Kalra, R.L. and Sharma, S.K. (1967) Field evaluation of ‘Dichlorvos’ for the control of mosquitoes, Bull. Ind. Soc. Mal. Com. Dis., 4, 23–33.Google Scholar
  21. Krishnamurthy, B.S., Ray, S.N. and Joshi, G.C. (1962) A note on preliminary field studies on the use of irradiated males for reduction of C. fatigans Wied. populations, Ind. J. Mal., 16, 365–373.Google Scholar
  22. Krishnamurthy, B.S. and Laven, H. (1972) Preparation of a cytoplasmically incompatible strain of Culex pipiens fatigans for use in genetic control in India, WHO/VBC/72.389.Google Scholar
  23. Laven, H. (1957) Vererbung durch Kerngene and das Problem der ausserkaryotischen Vererbung bei Culex fatigans 1, Kernvererbung, Z. Verebungel, 88, 443–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Laven, H. (1967a) Eradication of Culex pipiens fatigans through cytoplasmic incompatibility, Nature, 216, 383–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Laven, H. (1967b) Speciation and evolution in Culex pipiens. In Genetics of insect vectors of disease, Wright, J.W. and Pal, R. (eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam, 251–307.Google Scholar
  26. Laven, H. (1969) Eradicating mosquitoes using translocations, Nature, 221, 958–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Laven, H. and Aslamkhan, M. (1970) Control of Culex pipiens pipiens and C.p. fatigans with integrated genetical systems., Pakistan Jour. Science, 22, 303–312.Google Scholar
  28. Laven, H. and Jost, E. (1971) Inherited semisterility for control of harmful insects. I. Production of semisterility due to translocation in the mosquitoes, Culex pipiens L., by X-rays, Experientia, 27, 471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Manson Patrik (1878) On the development of Filaria senquinus hominis and on the mosquito considered as nurse, J. Linn. Soc. Zool. (London), 14, 304–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mathis, H.L., Graham, J.E., Abdulcader, M.H.M. and Self, L.S. (1969) Relative cost of oil and fenthion for larvicidal control of Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann in Rangoon, Burma, WHO/VBC/69-138 (Unpublished document).Google Scholar
  31. Mattingly, P.F. (1962) Population increase in Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann, Bull. Wld. Hlth Org., 276, 579–584.Google Scholar
  32. McDonald, P.T. and Rai, K.S. (1970) Aedes aegypti: Origin of a new chromosome from a double translocation heterozygote, Science, 168, 1229–1230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mohan, B.N. (1960) A note on DDT-resistant Culex fatigans with cross-resistance to gamma BHC and dieldrin, Ind. J. Mal., 14, 175–178.Google Scholar
  34. Mulla, M.S., Isaak, L.W. and Axelrod, H. (1960) Laboratory and field evaluation on new insecticides against mosquito larvae, Mosquito News, 20, 256–261.Google Scholar
  35. Pal, R. (1966) Genetic control of vectors of diseases with special reference to Culex pipiens fatigans, WHO/VBC/66.198.Google Scholar
  36. Pal, R. and Kalra, R.L. (1958) Comparative susceptibility of DDT-resistant and normal Culex fatigans larvae to diphenyl methane derivatives, chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphorus insecticides, Ind. J. Mal., 12, 439–445.Google Scholar
  37. Pal, R., Sharma, M.I.D. and Krishnamurthy, B.S. (1952) Studies on the development of resistant strains of houseflies and mosquitoes, Ind. J. Mal., 6, 303–316.Google Scholar
  38. Patterson, R.S. and Sharma, V.P. (1972) Induction of sterility in a field population of mosquitoes (Culex fatigans) using irradiated males, WHO/VBC/72.339 (Unpublished document).Google Scholar
  39. Patterson, R.S., Ford, H.R., Lofgren, C.S. and Weidhaas, D.S. (1970a) Sterile males: their effect on an isolated population of mosquitoes, Mosquito News, 30, 23–27.Google Scholar
  40. Patterson, R.S., Weidhaas, D.E., Ford, H.R. and Lofgren, C.S. (1970b) Suppression and elimination of an island population of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus with sterile males, Science, 168, 1368–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pavri, K.M. and Singh, K.R.P. (1965) Isolation of West Nile Virus from Culex fatigans mosquitoes from Western India, Ind. Jour. Med. Res., 53, 501–505.Google Scholar
  42. Pennington, N.E. (1968) Resistance of Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus Say to malathion on Okinawa with notes on susceptibility to other insecticides, Mosquito News, 28, 193–198.Google Scholar
  43. Pillai, M.K.K. and Grover, K.K. (1969) Chemosterilization of Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann by exposure to aquatic stages. I. Sterilization potential of certain aziridinyl compounds, Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 41, 915–928.Google Scholar
  44. Raghavan, N.G.S. (1961) The vectors of human infections by Wuchereria species in endemic areas and their biology, Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 24, 177–195.Google Scholar
  45. Ramakrishnan, S.P., Sharma, M.I.D. and Kalra, R.L. (1960a) Laboratory and field studies on the effectiveness of organophosphorus insecticides in the control of Culex fatigans, Ind. J. Mal., 14, 545–566.Google Scholar
  46. Ramakrishnan, S.P., Raghavan, N.G.S., Krishnaswami, A.K., Nair, C.P., Basu, P.C., Singh, D., and Krishnan, K.S. (1960b) National Filaria Control Programme in India — A review (1955–59), Ind. J. Mal., 14, 457–508.Google Scholar
  47. Rajagopalan, N., Vedamanickam, J.C. and Ramni, S.R. (1954) Development of resistance to BHC by C. fatigans in the course of a larval control programme, Bull. Nat. Soc. Ind. Mal. Mos. Dis., 2, 211–213.Google Scholar
  48. Rajagopalan, N., Vedamanickam, J.C. and Ramani, S.R. (1955) Tolerance of larvae of Culex fatigans Wiedemann to Gammexane applied as a larvicide at Kambakonam, South India, Ind. J. Ent., 12, 159–164.Google Scholar
  49. Reid, J.A. (1956) Field trials of larvicides for use against Culex pipiens fatigans with a note on the life-cycle of this mosquito, Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit., 50, 129–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Sharma, M.I.D. (1958) Laboratory and field development of resistance in mosquitoes, Ind. J. Mal., 12, 401–411.Google Scholar
  51. Sharma, M.I.D. (1961) The Kerala State Municipal and Corporation Health Inspectors and Health Assistant Conference, 2nd State-Conference 1961, Trivandrum.Google Scholar
  52. Sharma, V.P. and Patterson, R.S., Seetharam, P.L. and LaBrecque, G.S. (1972) Radiosterilization of the tropical house mosquito Culex fatigans Wied.: laboratory and field cage studies, WHO/VBC/72.345 (Unpublished document).Google Scholar
  53. Sharma, V.P. (1972) Personal communications.Google Scholar
  54. Sasa, M., Kurihara T., Dhamvanij, O. and Harinasuta G. (1965) Studies on mosquitoes and their natural enemies in Bangkok. III. Observations on a mosquito-eating fish “guppy” Lebistes reticulatus breeding in polluted waters, Japan J. Exp. Med., 35, 63–80.Google Scholar
  55. Self, L.S. and Tun, M.M. (1970) Summary of the field trials (1964–1969) in Rangoon, Burma using organophosphorus larvicides and oils against Culex pipiens fatigans in polluted water, WHO/VBC/70.187 (Unpublished document).Google Scholar
  56. Smittle, B.J., Mount, G.A., Das, M. and Rajapaksa, N. (1968) Apholate and gamma irradiation compared as sterilants for Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera, Culicidae), Mosquito News, 28, 201–204.Google Scholar
  57. Tadano, T. and Brown, A.W.A. (1966) Development of resistance to various insecticides of Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 35, 189–201.Google Scholar
  58. Tun, M.M. and Self, L.S. (1968) The susceptibility of Culex pipiens fatigans larvae to fenthion after two years of larval control in Rangoon, Burma, WHO/VBC/68.77 (Unpublished document).Google Scholar
  59. Wattal, B.L., Bhatnagar, V.N., Joshi, G.C. and Sharma, S.K. (1970a) Laboratory and field evaluation of Dursban (0,0-diethyl-0-3, 5-6 trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate) as a larvicide against Culex pipiens fatigans Wied. larvae, J. Comm. Dis., 2, 53–60.Google Scholar
  60. Wattal, B.L., Das, M. and Raghavan, N.G.S. (1970b) Place of chemosterilized male technique in the control system of Culex fatigans, J. Comm. Dis., 2, 80–86.Google Scholar
  61. Wattal, B.L. and Kalra, N.L. (1960) Pyralis pictalis Curt. (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) larvae as predators of eggs of bed bugs Cimex hemipterus Fab. (Cimicidae; Hemiptera), Ind. J. Mal., 14, 77–79.Google Scholar
  62. Weidhaas, D.E., Ford, H.R., Gahan, J.B. and Smith, C.N. (1961) Preliminary observations on chemosterilization of mosquitos, Proceedings 48th Ann. Meeting, N.J. Mosq. Exterm. Association, 106-109.Google Scholar
  63. White, G.B. (1971) The present importance of domestic mosquito (Culex pipiens fatigans Wiedemann) in East Africa and recent steps towards their control, East, Afri. Med. J., 48, 266–274.Google Scholar
  64. Woodhall, J.P. (1965) Summary of virus isolations from arthropods at this institute to the end of 1964. In East African Virus Research Institute Report, July 1963 to December 1964.Google Scholar

Additional reference

  1. Dissanaike, A.S. (1968) Proc. Seminar 3rd S.E.S. Reg. Meet. Parasit. Trop. Med., p. 149.Google Scholar
  2. Ramakrishnan, S.P., Krishnamurthy, B.S. and Ray, S.N. (1962) Laboratory studies on the use of irradiated sterile males to reduce C. fatigans Wied. populations, Ind. J. Mal., 16, 357–364.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. I. D. Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Communicable DiseasesDelhi-6India

Personalised recommendations