Alert neurons in the brain: waking and attention

  • G. Ádám


Pavlov called attention to the fact that unexpected, sudden changes in an animal’s environment result in corresponding changes in its behavior. For instance, in response to sound stimuli dogs show a startle reaction, turn in the direction of the source of the sound, become alert, etc. This simple congenital reflex was described by Pavlov as early as 1910, and he called it the orienting reflex. He emphasized that in experiments on animal behavior all external disturbing effects interfering with the correct interpretation of the animal’s responses to the stimuli under investigation must be eliminated. Since all unexpected stimuli elicit orienting reflexes, the experimental equipment must ensure the elimination of such reactions. Therefore, he suggested the use of sound- and lightproof chambers.


Alpha Rhythm Sensory Pathway Delta Wave Alpha Wave Sensory Impulse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Ádám
    • 1
  1. 1.Eötvös Loránd UniversityBudapestHungary

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