The Value of Laparotomy in the Staging of Hodgkin’s Disease in Children
In most children with Hodgkin’s disease, spleen and liver scans, intravenous pyelography, inferior vena cavagrams, gastrointestinal series and barium enema studies have failed to delineate the extent of subdiaphragmatic lymph-node or organ involvement. Pedal lymphangiograms have been of some value in detecting involved retroperitoneal lymph nodes, but this examination does not demonstrate nodes in the region of the celiac axis. Definitely positive lymphangiograms are very helpful, but negative examinations cannot be relied upon. Because of this, since 1968, 25 children with histologically-proven Hodgkin’s disease have been submitted to laparotomy to determine the extent of abdominal visceral and retroperitoneal gland involvement.