Immunological Aspects of Neuroblastoma

  • Peter B. Dent

Abstract

Neuroblastoma has attracted the interest of oncologists and immunologists because it has a number of biological properties, which may provide some insight into the neoplastic process and the host’s antitumor defense mechanisms. These features which have recently been reviewed1, include an unusually high incidence of spontaneous regression. On the basis of autopsy studies of adrenal glands taken from infants dying from other causes, it has been calculated that the incidence of neuroblastoma in situ exceeds that of clinically diagnosed neuroblastoma by almost 100 fold. It has been postulated that some host control mechanism is responsible for this phenomenon. It is not yet clear whether this disparity is due to some sort of differentiative influence through which neuroblastomas can differentiate into benign ganglioneuromas; however, it has been recognized for several years that human neuroblastoma can display evidence of maturation when cultivated in vitro 2. Recently, Schubert et al.3 have shown that suitable modifications of culture conditions can revèrsibly alter the transplantable murine neuroblastoma from a typical neuroblast to a cell with neurite outgrowth resembling a more mature nerve cell. Whether there is an accompanying change in the malignant behavior of such cells is not known. Further studies in this system are urgently needed to determine whether induction of differentiation in a neoplastic cell might control the malignant process.

Keywords

Neuroblastoma Defend Autochthonous Blastoma DNCB 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    HELLSTROM, K. E. and HELLSTROM, I.: Immunity to neuroblastomas and melanomas. Annu Rev Med, 23: 19. 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    MURRAY, M. R. and STOUT, A. P.: Distinctive characteristics of the sympathicoblastoma cultivated in vitro. A method for prompt diagnosis. Am J Pathol, 23: 429, 1947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    SCHUBERT, D., HUMPHREYS, S., deVITRY, F. and JACOB, F.: Induced differentiation of neuroblastoma. Dee Biol, 25: 514, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    MARTIN, R. F. and BECKWITH, J. B.: Lymphoid infiltrates in neuroblastomas, their occurrence and prognostic significance. J Pediatr Surg, 3: 161, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    BILL, A. H. and MORGAN, A.: Evidence for immune reactions to neuroblastoma and future possibilities for investigation. J Pediatr Surg, 5: 111, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    NELSON, L., RAMOS. C. OETTGEN, H. and MURPHY, M.: DNCB reactivity in children with neuroblastoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res, 12: 86, 1971.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    SMITH. R. T.: Tumor specific immune mechanisms. New Engl J Med, 278: 1207, 1268, 1326. 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    HELLSTROM, K. E. and HELLSTROM, L. Immunological enhancement as studied by cell culture techniques. Annu Rev Microhiol, 24: 373, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    SJOGREN, H. O. HELLSTROM, L. BANSAL, S. C. and HELLSTROM, K. E.: Suggestive evidence that the “blocking antibodies” of tumor-bearing individuals may be antigen-antibody complexes. Proc Nati Acad Sci. 68: 1372, 1971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    COHEN. A. M. BURDICK, J. F. and KETCHAM, A. S.: Tumor specific cellular immunity. J Surg Res, 11: 421, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    HELLSTROM, I., HELLSTROM, K. E. BILL, A. H. PIERCE, G. E. and YANG, J. P. S.: Studies on cellular immunity to human neuroblastoma cells. Int J Cancer, 6: 172, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    HELLSTROM, I., HELLSTROM, K. E., PIERCE, G. E. and BILL, A. H.: Demonstration of cell-bound and humoral immunity against neuroblastoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 60: 1231, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    JAGARLAMOODY, S. M. AUST, J. C., TEW, R. H. and McKHANN, C. F.: In vitro detection of cytotoxic cellular immunity against tumor-specific antigens by a radioisotopic technique. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 68: 1346, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    KUMAR, S., TAYLOR, G., STEWARD, J. K., WAGHE, M. A. and PEARSON, D.: Cellular immunity in Wilms’ tumor and neuroblastoma. Int J Cancer, 10: 36, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    PRASAD, K. N., ZAMBERNARD, J., LASHER, R. and VANWOERT, M. H.: Transmission of mouse neuroblastoma by a cell-free extract. Nature, 228: 997, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    LEWIS, M. G., IKONOPISOV, R. L., NAIRN, R. C., PHILLIPS, T. M., FAIRLEY, G. H., BODENHAM, D. C. and ALEXANDER, P.: Tumor-specific antibodies in human malignant melanoma and their relationship to the extent of disease. Br Med J, 3: 547, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    O’TOOLE, C. PERLMANN, P.. ONSGAARD, B., MOBERGER, G. and EDSMYR, F.: Cellular immunity to human urinary bladder carcinoma. 1. Correlation to clinical stage and radiotherapy. Int J Cancer, 10: 77, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    SJOGREN, H. O., HELLSTROM, I. BANSAL, S. C., WARNER, G. A. and HELLSTROM, K. E.: Elution of “blocking factors” from human tumors, capable of abrogating tumor cell destruction by specifically immune lymphocytes. Int J Cancer, 9: 274, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    HELLSTROM, I.. HELLSTROM, K. E., SJOGREN, H. O. and WARNER, G. A.: Serum factors in tumor-free patients cancelling the blocking of cell-mediated tumor immunity. Int J Cancer, 8: 185, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    TUMILOWICZ, J. J., NICHOLS, W. W., CHOLON, J. J. and GREENE, A. E.: Definition of a continuous human cell line derived from neuroblastoma. Cancer Res, 30: 2110, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Ontario Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter B. Dent
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations