• M. E. Gibbs
  • R. F. Mark


Experiments with anticholinergic and anticholinesterase drugs led to the hypothesis that after a learning experience there is a gradual change in the level of transmitter released at a synapse during transmission. The level of ACh would be high immediately after learning during temporary storage and rapidly decline to a low point from which it would slowly increase to a new higher level underlying long-term storage (3.11, 3.13). (For a review see Deutsch, 1971).


Biogenic Amine Anticholinergic Drug Retrograde Amnesia Synaptic Conductance Amnesic Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 3.20
    BERGER, B.D. and STEIN, L. 1969 An analysis of learning deficits produced by scopolamine, Psychopharmacologia 14: 271–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 3.15
    BOHDANECKY, Z. and JARVIK, M.E. 1967 The effect of D-amphetamine and physostigmine upon acquisition and retrieval in a single trial learning task. Archs int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 170: 58–65Google Scholar
  3. BURKHALTER, A. 1963 Effect of puromycin on Cholinesterase activity of embryonic chick intestine in organ culture. Nature, Lond. 199: 598–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CHRIST, D.D. and NISHI, S. 1971 Effects of adrenaline on nerve terminals in the superior cervical ganglion of the rabbit. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 41: 331–338Google Scholar
  5. 3.4
    DEUTSCH, J.A. 1966 Substrates of learning and memory. Dis. Nerv. Syst. 27: 20–24Google Scholar
  6. 3.10
    DEUTSCH, J.A. 1969 The physiological basis of memory. Psychol. Rev. 20: 85–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DEUTSCH, J.A. 1971 The cholinergic synapse and the site of memory. Science 174: 788–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 3.3
    DEUTSCH, J.A., HAMBURG, M.D. and DAHL, H. 1966 Anticholinesterase-induced amnesia and its temporal aspects. Science 151: 221–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 3.5
    DEUTSCH, J.A. and LEIBOWITZ, S.F. 1966 Amnesia or reversal of forgetting by anticholinesterase, depending simply on time of injection. Science 153: 1017–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 3.6
    DEUTSCH, J.A. and LUTZKY, H. 1967 Memory enhancement by anticholinesterase as a function of initial learning. Nature, Lond. 213: 742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 3.7
    DEUTSCH, J.A. and ROCKLIN, K. 1967 Amnesia induced by scopolamine and its temporal variations. Nature, Lond. 216: 89–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 3.12
    DEUTSCH, J.A. and WIENER, N.I. 1969 Analysis of extinction through amnesia. J. comp, physiol. Psychol. 69: 179–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 3.16
    DILTS, S.L. and BERRY, C.A. 1967 Effect of cholinergic drugs on passive avoidance in mouse. J. Pharm. Exptl. Ther. 158: 279–285Google Scholar
  14. 3.33
    DISMUKES, R.K. and RAKE, A.V. 1972 Involvement of biogenic amines in memory formation. Psychopharmacologia 23: 17–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. ENERO, M.A., LANGER, S.Z., ROTHLIN, R.P. and STEPHANO, F.J.E. 1972 Role of the a-adrenoceptor in regulating noradrenaline overflow by nerve stimulation. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 44: 672–688Google Scholar
  16. 3.18
    ESSMAN, W.B. 1972 Neurochemical changes in ECS and ECT. Seminars in Psychiatry 4: 67–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 3.26
    EVANS, H.L. and PATTON, R.A. 1968 Scopolamine effects on a one-trial test of fear conditioning. Psychon. Sci. 11: 229–230Google Scholar
  18. 3.27
    CLICK, S.D. and ZIMMERBERG, B. 1971 Comparative learning impairment and amnesia by scopolamine, phencyclidine, and ketamine. Psychon. Sci. 25: 165–166Google Scholar
  19. 3.29
    CLICK, S.D. and ZIMMERBERG, B. 1972 Amnesic effects of scopolamine. Behavl. Biol. 7: 245–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 3.8
    GOLDBERG, M.E., SLEDGE, K., HEFNER, M. and ROBICHAUD, R.C. 1971 Learning impairment after three classes of agents which modify cholinergic function. Archs int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 193: 226–235Google Scholar
  21. HAMBURG, M.D. 1967 A retrograde amnesia produced by intraperitoneal injections of physostigmine. Science 156: 973–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. HARTMAN, B.K., ZIDE, D. and UDENFRIEND, S. 1972 The use of dopamine 3-hydroxylase as a marker for the central noradrenergic nervous system in rat brain. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69: 2722–2726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 3.11
    HUPPERT, F.A. and DEUTSCH, J.A. 1969 Improvement in memory with time. Q. J exp. Psychol. 21: 267–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. KASA, P. 1971 Ultrastructural localisation of cholineacetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in central and peripheral nervous tissue. In: Histochemistry of Nervous Transmission, edited by O. Eranko, Progress in Brain Research 34: 337–334Google Scholar
  25. KETY, S.S. 1970 The biogenic amines in the central nervous system: their possible roles in arousal, emotion and learning. In: The Neurosciences Second Study Program, edited by F.O. Schmitt, New York: The Rockefeller Uni. Press, p.324–336Google Scholar
  26. 3.30
    KRAL, P.A. 1971 Effects of scopolamine injection during CS-US interval on conditioning. Psychol. Rep. 28: 690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 3.34
    MADDEN, T.C.JNR. and GREENOUGH, W.T. 1972 Adrenergic and cholinergic drug effects on retention of a discriminated escape. Psychon. Sci. 26: 133–134Google Scholar
  28. 3.2
    MEYERS, B. 1965 Some effects of scopolamine on a passive avoidance response in rats. Psychopharmacologia 8: 111–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MUSCHOLL, E. 1970 Cholinomimetic drugs and release of the adrenergic transmitter. In: Bayer Symposium II, New Aspects of Storage and Release Mechanisms of the Catecholamines, edited by H.S. Schumann and G. Kronenberg, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, p. 168–186Google Scholar
  30. 3.1
    PAZZAGLI, A. and PEPEU, G. 1964 Amnesic properties of scopolamine and brain acetylcholine in the rat. Intern. J. Neuropharm. 4: 291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 3.32
    RANDT, C.T., QUARTERMAIN, D., GOLDSTEIN, M. and ANAGNOSTE, B. 1971 Norepinephrine biosynthesis inhibition: effects on memory in mice. Science 172: 498–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 3.23
    RUSSELL, R.W., WARBURTON, D.M., VASQUEZ, B.J., OVERSTREET, D.H. and DALGLISH, F.W. 1971 Acquisition of new responses by rats during chronic depression of acetylcholinesterase activity. J. comp, physiol. Psychol. 77: 228–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 3.28
    SCHNEIDER, A.M., KAPP, B.S. and SHERMAN, W.M. 1970 The effects of centrally and peripherally acting cholinergic drugs on the short-term performance gradient following passive-avoidance training. Psychopharmacologia 18: 77–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. SILVER, A. 1967 Cholinesterases of the central nervous system with special reference to the cerebellum. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 10: 57–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. SILVER, A. 1971 The significance of Cholinesterase in the developing nervous system. In: Histochemistry of Nervous Transmission, edited by O. Eranko, Progress in Brain Research vol. 34: 345–355Google Scholar
  36. 3.19
    SLATER, P. 1968 The effects of triethylcholine, hemicholinium-3 and N-4-Diethylamino -2-butynyl -succinimide on maze performance and brain acetylcholine in the rat. Life Sci. 7: 833–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. SQUIRE, L.R. 1969 Effects of pretrial and post-trial administration of cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs on spontaneous alternation. J. comp, physiol. Psychol. 69: 69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 3.24
    SQUIRE, L.R. 1970 Physostigmine: Effects on retention at different times after brief training. Psychon. Sci. 19: 49–50Google Scholar
  39. 3.25
    SQUIRE, L.R., CLICK, S.D. and GOLDFARB, J. 1971 Relearning at different times after training as affected by centrally and peripherally acting cholinergic drugs in the mouse. J. comp, physiol. Psychol. 74: 41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 3.31
    STAHL, S.M., ZELLER, E.A. and BOSCHES, B. 1971 On the effect of modulation of cerebral amine metabolism on the learning and memory of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Trans. Amer. Neurol. Assoc. p. 96Google Scholar
  41. 3.17
    STARK, L.G. 1967 The inability of scopolamine to induce state-dependent one-trial learning. Fed. Proc. 26: 613Google Scholar
  42. 3.21
    SUITS, E. and ISAACSON, R.L. 1969 Effects of scopolamine hydrobromide on passive avoidance learning in rats. Psychon. Sci. 15: 135–137Google Scholar
  43. 3.22
    WARBURTON, D.M. 1969 Behavioural effects of central and peripheral changes in acetylcholine systems. J. comp, physiol. Psychol. 68: 56–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. WEISS, B. and HELLER, A. 1969 Methodological problems in evaluating the role of cholinergic mechanisms in behaviour. Fed. Proc. 28: 135–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 3.13
    WIENER, N.I. 1970 Electroconvulsive shock induced impairment and enhancement of a learned response. Physiol. and Behav. 5: 971–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 3.9
    WIENER, N.I. and DEUTSCH, J.A. 1968 Temporal aspects of anticholinergic and anticholinesterase induced amnesia. J. comp, physiol. Psychol. 66: 613–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 31.4
    WIENER, N.I. and MESSER, J. 1972 Hemicholinium-3 induced amnesia: some temporal properties. Psychon. Sci. 26: 129–130Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. E. Gibbs
    • 1
  • R. F. Mark
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Behavioural SciencesLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations