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Electroconvulsive Shock

  • M. E. Gibbs
  • R. F. Mark

Abstract

Five major hypotheses have been advanced to explain the retrograde effect of ECS on learned responses. The earliest and most widely accepted hypothesis is that the ECS disrupts a temporally graded memory consolidation process which continues for an hour or more after learning. An alternative hypothesis is that the ECS is a highly aversive stimulus so that it acts as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in Pavlovian (classical) conditioning. A partial convulsion response, conditioned to situational cues as conditioned stimulus (CS) comes to complete with the learned response. A third alternative is that the effects of ECS given at post-learning intervals longer than a few seconds were on a non-discriminative conditioned emotional response (CER). Finally, it has been suggested that the retrograde effects of ECS were due to an increase in the strength of the avoidance response with time following an aversive simulus rather than due to the disruption of the memory process.

Keywords

Conditioned Stimulus Passive Avoidance Active Avoidance Retrograde Amnesia Electroconvulsive Shock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. E. Gibbs
    • 1
  • R. F. Mark
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Behavioural SciencesLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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