Advertisement

Scanning Electron Microscopy and Microanalysis

  • H. N. Southworth

Abstract

This chapter deals with a number of techniques which have been specially tailored to provide a particular kind of information. The major emphasis has been laid on techniques for the quantitative chemical analysis of typically micron-sized volumes using principally electron beams as the exciting radiation, and also as the detected radiation in some cases. This concept of ‘microanalysis’ has, somewhat unconventionally, been extended to include techniques for investigating surfaces, which is a very new and important field. Associated with many of the techniques described are some novel ways of imaging the specimen using electrons, X-rays, or ions. This combination of elemental analysis with surface microscopy is especially important in enabling the composition of a phase to be related to the microstructure or texture of the material. Thus it may be important to know not only the percentage of a given metal present in an ore, but also how it is distributed and hence whether its extraction is likely to be commercially feasible. For example, knowledge of the way in which the sulphides of zinc and lead are intergrown in a mixed lead-zinc ore will determine the feasibility of separating the two phases by froth flotation.

Keywords

Specimen Surface Auger Electron Depth Resolution Exciting Radiation Froth Flotation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. J. DEKKER, ‘Solid State Physics’, Macmillan, London and New York, 1964.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. R. THORNTON, ‘Scanning Electron Microscopy’, Chapman and Hall, London, 1968.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. R. BOOKER, in ‘Modern Diffraction and Imaging Techniques in Materials Science’, S. Amelinckx, R. Gevers, G. Remaut and J. van Landuyt (eds), North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1970, p. 553.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. W. KAMLOTT, Surf. Sci., 25, 120 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. V. CREWE, J. WALL and L. M. WELTER, J. Appl. Phys., 39, 5861 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. W. WHITE, in ‘Scanning Electron Microscopy/1968’, IIT Research Institute, Chicago, 1968, p. 89.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. D. MCKINLEY, K. F. J. HEINRICH and D. B. WITTRY (eds), ‘The Electron Microprobe’, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York and London, 1966.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    I. ADLER, ‘X-ray Emission Spectrography in Geology’, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1966.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. V. P. LONG, in ‘Physical Methods in Determinative Mineralogy’, J. Zussman (ed), Academic Press, London and New York, 1967, p. 215.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. W. MEAD, in ‘Electron Probe Microanalysis’, A. J. Tousimis and L. Marton (eds), ‘Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics’, Suppl. 6, 1969.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. L. BAUN and E. W. WHITE, Anal Chem., 41, 831 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. DENNY and R. ROY, Proc. XIIth Conf. Clays and Clay Minerals, Atlanta, Ga., 567 (1963).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. W. WHITE, Amer. Mineral, 49, 196 (1964).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. SPRINGER and J. V. P. LONG, in ‘X-ray Optics and X-ray Microanalysis’, Academic Press, London and New York, 1963, p. 611.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. P. JONES, J. GAVRILOVIC and C. H. J. BEAVER, Trans. Inst. Mining and Met., 75, B274 (1966).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. W. WHITE and G. V. GIBBS, Amer. Mineral., 54, 931 (1969).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. REUTER, Surf. Sci, 25, 80 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. DUNCUMB, in ‘Electron Microscopy and Analysis’, Inst, of Physics Conf. Series No. 10, p. 132 (1971).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. R. SWEATMAN and J. V. P. LONG, J. Petrol, 10, 332 (1969).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. W. WHITE, P. DENNY and S. M. IRVING, Electron Microprobe, Proc. Symp., Washington D.C., 791 (1964).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. JEFFERIES and J. V. P. LONG, in ‘Electron Microscopy and Analysis’, Inst, of Physics Conf. Series No. 10, p. 150 (1971).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. SPRINGER, in ‘X-ray Optics and Microanalysis’, Academic Press, London and New York, 1969, p. 424.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. CASTAING, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Paris, Publ. O.N.E.R.A., No. 55, 1951.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.V. P. LONG and S. O. AGRELL, Miner. Mag., 34, 318 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    P. DUNCUMB, in ‘X-ray Optics and X-ray Microanalysis’, Academic Press, London and New York, 1963, p. 431.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. M. POOLE and J. L. SHAW, in ‘X-ray Optics and Microanalysis’, Academic Press, London and New York, 1969, p. 319.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. LIEBL, J. Appl. Phys., 38, 5277 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. J. SOCHA, Surf. Sci., 25, 147 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    P. A. REDHEAD and R. A. ARMSTRONG, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Vacuumtechniek, 8, 145 (1970).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. C. CHANG, Surf. Sci., 25, 53 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. C. RIVIèRE, Phys. Stat. Sol., (In press).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. G. JACKSON, M. P. HOOKER, T. W. HAAS, G. J. DOOLEY, and J. T. GRANT, ‘Bibliography on Low Energy Electron Diffraction’, U.S. Govt. Rept., ARL 69–0003, 1969).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    B. CARRIERE, J-P. DEVILLE, and S. GOLDSZTAUB, C.R.Acad. Sci. Paris, 271B, 796(1970).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. POPPA and A. G. ELLIOT, Surf. Sci., 24, 149 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. M. HERCULES, Anal. Chem., 42, 20A (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    K. SIEGBAHN, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., A268, 33 (1970).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J. R. LOVERING and J. R. WIDDOWSON, Lithos. 1, 264 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    E. W. MÜLLER, Adv. in Electronics and Electron Physics, 13, 83 (1960).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    K. M. BOWKETT and D. A. SMITH, ‘Field-Ion Microscopy’, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1970.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. N. SOUTHWORTH, Contemp. Phys., 11. 209 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    E. W. MÜLLER, J. A. PANITZ, and S. B. MCLANE, Rev. Sci. Instr., 39, 83 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    N. C. MACDONALD, in ‘Scanning Electron Microscopy 1970’, Proc. Fourth Annual SEM Symp. (HT Res. Inst., Chicago, 1970) p. 89.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. N. Southworth
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physical Metallurgy and Science of MaterialsUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamEngland

Personalised recommendations