Lithium pp 75-82 | Cite as

Pharmacology—Lithium’s Effects on Cyclic AMP, Membrane Transport, and Cholinergic Mechanisms

  • Eitan Friedman


The functional significance of adenosine 3′, 5′-phosphate (cyclic AMP) in the mammalian central nervous system is unclear. Brain tissue is rich in cyclic AMP, which is unevenly distributed in rat brain particulate material associated with the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions (Sutherland et al., 1962; Ebadi et al., 1971). The specific distribution of cyclic AMP in various brain regions reflects the relative activities of the synthetic and degradative enzymes, adenyl cyclase, and phosphodiesterase. These enzymes have been found to vary in activity in specific regions of the brain (Weiss and Costa, 1968). Adenyl cyclase has been shown to be of highest specific activity in brain tissue (Sutherland et al., 1962; Weiss and Costa, 1968) and to be associated with subcellular fractions that contain membrane fragments and nerve endings (De Robertis et al., 1967). The precise localization of this enzyme is unknown; however, various lines of evidence point to an association with presynaptic structures (De Robertis et al., 1967), postsynaptic (Weiss and Costa, 1967) or extraneuronal sites, and also glial cells (Schimmer, 1971).


Adenyl Cyclase Adenyl Cyclase Activity Acetylcholine Release Cholinergic Mechanism Affective Illness 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eitan Friedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuropsychopharmacology Research Unit, Department of PsychiatryNew York University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

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