Lithium pp 295-315 | Cite as

Lithium in Other Psychiatric Disorders

  • Frederic M. Quitkin
  • Arthur Rifkin
  • Donald F. Klein


As early as the mid-1950s Giesinger (1954) and Gershon and Trautner (1956) presented case reports suggesting that lithium might be useful in a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Subsequently there appeared reports of lithium use in many illnesses in addition to the salient studies of manicdepressive illness. These can be divided into controlled studies and anecdotal reports. We shall concentrate on a detailed review of controlled studies with the hope that briefer discussion of anecdotal reports may encourage definitive studies.


Personality Disorder Brief Psychiatric Rate Scale Lithium Treatment Affective Component Mood Swing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Psychiatric Association, 1968, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Mental Disorders, 2nd Edition, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  2. Angst, J., Weis, P., Grof, P., Baastrup, P. C., and Schou, M., 1970 Lithium prophylaxis in recurrent affective disorders, Brit. J. Psychiat. 116:599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Annell, A., 1969, Lithium in the treatment of children and adolescents, Acta Psychiat. Scand. Supp. 207:19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baastrup, P. C., 1969, Practical clinical viewpoints regarding treatment with lithium. Acta Psychiat. Scand. Supp. 207:12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bindra, D., 1968, Neurophysiological interpretation of the effects of drive and incentive motivation on general activity and instrumental behavior, Psychol. Rev. 75:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dyson, W. L., and Barcai, A., 1970, Treatment of children of lithium-responding parents, Current Therap. Res. 12:286.Google Scholar
  7. Dyson, W., and Mendels, J., 1968, Lithium and depression, Current Therap. Res. 10:601.Google Scholar
  8. Forssman, H., and Walinder, J., 1969, Lithium treatment on atypical indication, Acta Psychiat. Scand. Supp. 207:34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fries, H., 1969, Experience with lithium carbonate treatment at a psychiatric department in the period 1964–1967, Acta Psychiat. Scand. Supp. 207:41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Frommer, E. A., 1968, Depressive illness in childhood, Brit. J. Psychiat. Spec. Publ. 2:117Google Scholar
  11. Geisler, A., and Schou, M., 1969, Lithium ved tvangsneuroser, Nord. Psykiat. Tidsskrift, 23:493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gershon, S., and Trautner, E. M., 1956, The treatment of shock-dependency by pharmacological agents, Med. J. Australia 43:783.Google Scholar
  13. Gershon, S., and Yuwiler, A., 1960, Lithium ion. A specific pharmacological approach to the treatment of mania, J. Neuropsychiat. 1:229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gjessing, L. R., 1967, Lithium citrate loading of a patient with periodic catatonia, Acta Psychiat. Scand. 43:372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Giesinger, G., 1954, Evaluation of lithium in treatment of psychotic excitement, Med. J. Australia 41:277.Google Scholar
  16. Gottfries, C. G., 1968, The effect of lithium salts on various kinds of psychiatric disorders. Acta Psychiat. Scand. Supp. 44:199.Google Scholar
  17. Gram, L. F., and Rafaelson, O.J., 1971, Lithium treatment of psychotic children, manuscript, University of Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  18. Johnson, G., 1970, Differential response to lithium carbonate in manic-depressive and schizo-affective disorders. Diseases Nervous System 31:613.Google Scholar
  19. Johnson, G., Gershon, S., Burdock, A. F., and Hekimian, L., 1971, Comparative effects of lithium and chlorpromazine in the treatment of acute manic states, Brit. J. Psychiat. 119:267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klein, D. F., 1967, Importance of psychiatric diagnosis in prediction of clinical drug effects. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 16:118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klein, D. F., 1968, Psychiatric diagnosis and a typology of clinical drug effects, Psychophar-macologia 13:359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Klein, D. F., and Davis, J. M., 1969, Diagnosis and Drug Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  23. Klein, D. F., 1970, Psychotropic drugs and the regulation of behavioral activation in psychiatric illness, in: Drugs and Cerebral Function (W. L. Smith, ed.), C. C. Thomas, Ft. Lauderdale.Google Scholar
  24. Lackroy, G. H., and van Praag, H. M., 1971, Lithium salts as sedatives. Acta Psychiat. Scand. 47:163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mayer-Gross, W., Slater, E., and Roth, M., 1969, Clinical Psychiatry, 3rd Edition, Williams, and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  26. Pollack, M., Klein, D. F., Willner, A., Blumberg, A. G., and Fink, M., 1964, Imipramine- induced behavioral disorganization in schizophrenic patients: Physiological and psychological correlates, in: Recent Advances in Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 7 (J. Wortis, ed.), pp. 53–61, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Prien, R. F., Caffey, E. M., and Klett, C. J., 1971a, Lithium carbonate: A survey of the history and current status of lithium in treating mood disorders. Cooperative Studies in Psychiatry, Report No. 88, VA-NIMH Collaborative Study Group, Perry Point, Md.Google Scholar
  28. Prien, R. F., Caffey, E. M., and Klett, C. J., 1971b, A comparison of lithium carbonate and chlorpromazine in the treatment of excited schizo-affectives, Cooperative Studies in Psychiatry, Report No. 89, VA-NIMH Collaborative Study Group, Perry Point, Md.Google Scholar
  29. Prien, R. F., Caffey, E. M., and Klett, C. J., 1972, Comparison of lithium carbonate and chlorpromazine in the treatment of mania. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 26:146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Quitkin, F. M., and Klein, D. F., 1969, Two behavioral syndromes in young adults related to possible minimal brain dysfunction, J. Psychiat. Res. 7:131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rifkin, A., Quitkin, F., Carrillo, C., Blumberg, A., and Klein, D. F., 1972, Lithium in emotionally unstable character disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 27:519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rimon, R., and Rakkolainen, V., 1968, Lithium iodide in the treatment of confusional states, Brit. J. Psychiat. 114:109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Routtenberg, A., 1968, The two-arousal hypothesis: Reticular formation and limbic system, Psychol. Rev. 75:51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schou, M., 1968, Special review: Lithium in psychiatric therapy and prophylaxis, J. Psychiat. Res. 6:67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schou, M., Amdisen, A., and Thomsen, K., 1968, The effect of lithium on the normal mind in: De Psychiatria Progrediente, Vol. 2 (P. Baudis, E. Peterova, and V. Sedivec, eds.), pp. 712–721, Plzen.Google Scholar
  36. Sheard, M. H., 1971, Effect of lithium on human aggression. Nature 230:113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shopsin, B., Johnson, G., and Gershon, S., 1970, Neurotoxicity with lithium: Differential drug responsiveness, Int. Pharmacopsychiat. 5:170.Google Scholar
  38. Shopsin, B., Kim, S., and Gershon, S., 1971, A controlled study of lithiumvs. chlorprom- azine in acute schizophrenics, Brit. J. Psychiat. 119:435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sletten, I. W., and Gershon, S., 1966, The premenstrual syndrome: A discussion of its pathophysiology and treatment with lithium ion. Comprehensive Psychiat. 7:197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Spence, A. W., 1953, Clinical Endocrinology, Hoebner, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Straker, M., 1970, Clinical experience with lithium carbonate, Canad. Psychiat. Assoc. J. 15:21.Google Scholar
  42. Teulie, M. Follin, W. and Begoin, M. 1955, Etude de Faction des sels de lithium aux etats d’excitation psychomotrice, Encephale 44:266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Tupin, J., 1970, The use of lithium for manic-depressive psychosis, Hosp. Commim. Psychiat. 21:73.Google Scholar
  44. Tupin, J., 1971, Personal communication.Google Scholar
  45. Tupin, J. P., Schlagenhauf, G. K., and Creson, D. L., 1968, Lithium effects on electrolyte excretion. Am. J. Psychiat. 125:536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Wender, P., 1972, Personal communication.Google Scholar
  47. Whitehead, P. L., and Clark, L. D., 1970, Effect of lithium carbonate, placebo, and thioridazine on hyperactive children. Am. J. Psychiat. 127:824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Williamson, B., 1966, Psychiatry since lithium, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 27:775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Winokur, G., Clayton, P. J., and Reich, T., 1969, Manic-Depressive Illness, C. V, Mosby, Co., St. Louis.Google Scholar
  50. Zall, H., Therman, P. G., and Myers, J. M., 1968, Lithium carbonate: A clinical study. Am. J. Psychiat. 125:549.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederic M. Quitkin
    • 1
  • Arthur Rifkin
    • 1
  • Donald F. Klein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Research, and EvaluationLong Island Jewish—Hillside Medical CenterGlen OaksUSA

Personalised recommendations