Advertisement

Particulate Matter in the Lower Atmosphere

  • Richard D. Cadle

Abstract

Many scientific disciplines have contributed to our knowledge of the nature and concentration of fine particles in the atmosphere. These disciplines include theoretical and experimental physics, meteorology, astronomy, and chemistry. This chapter describes results obtained by such disciplines, discusses in detail many of the aspects of more than average interest, and suggests several problems that remain to be solved.

Keywords

Sulfur Dioxide Lower Atmosphere Cloud Droplet Nitrogen Dioxide Stratospheric Aerosol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Junge, C. E., “Air Chemistry and Radioactivity,” Academic Press, New York, 1963.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aitken, J., “Collection of Scientific Papers,” Cambridge Univ. Press, London, 1923.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Randall, R. E., McGill Univ. Dept. of Geography, Climatological Bull. No. 3, pp. 23–35, January 1968.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bierly, W. B., J. Environ. Sci. 8, 15 (1965).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cadle, R. D., “Particles in the Atmosphere and Space,” Reinhold, New York, 1966.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mason, B. J., Nature 174, 470 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Day, J. A., in “Proc. Int. Conf. on Cloud Physics, Tokyo and Sapporo,” May 1965, pp. 3–6.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maclntyre, F., Ion Fractionation in Drops from Breaking Bubbles, Ph.D. thesis, MIT, September 1965.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eriksson, E., Tellus 11, 375 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Garrett, W. D., J. Geophys. Res. 73, 5145 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meinel, M. P., and Meinel, A. B., Science 142, 582 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Newell, R. E., Nature 227, 697 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McClaine, L. A., Allen, R. V., McConnell, Jr., R. K., and Surprenant, N. F., J. Geophys. Res. 73, 5235 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cadle, R. D., Wartburg, A. F., Frank, E. R., and Lodge, Jr., J. P., Nature 213, 581 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cadle, R. D., and Frank, E. R., J. Geophys. Res. 73, 4780 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cadle, R. D., Lazrus, A. L., and Shedlovsky, J. P., J. Geophys. Res. 74, 3372 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Naughton, J. J., Heald, E. F., and Barnes, Jr., I. L., J. Geophys. Res. 68, 539 (1963); 68, 545 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rittmann, A., “Volcanoes and Their Activity,” Wiley, New York, 1962, pp. 38, 153–157; Sapper, K., “Vulkankunde,” Engelhorn, Stuttgart, 1927.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    MacDonald, G. A., Geological Survey Bull. 1021-B, U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1965, pp. 97–100.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shepherd, E. S., Am. J. Sci. 235A, 311 (1938).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Robinson, E. and Robbins, R. C., Report No. PR-6755, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1968, pp. 38–5.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mason, B. J., “The Physics of Clouds,” Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Neuberger, H., Mech. Eng. 70 (3), 221 (1948).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hobbs, P. H., and Rodke, L. F., Science 163, 279 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Warner, J., J. Appl. Meteor. 7, 247 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Warner, J., and Twomey, J., J. Atmos. Sci. 24, 704 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bowen, E. G., Nature 111, 1121 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pettersson, H., Nature 181, 330 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pettersson, H., Scientific American, 1960 (February), p. 123.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Glasstone, S., “Sourcebook on the Space Sciences,” Van Nostrand, New York, 1965.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    öpik, E. J., Irish Astron. J. 4, 84 (1957).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fiocco, G., and Colombo, G., J. Geophys. Res. 69, 1795 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rosinski, J., and Snow, R. H., J. Meteorol. 18, 736 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rosinski, J., J. Atmos. Terres. Phys. 32, 805 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rogers, L. A., and Meier, F. C., Nat. Geog. Soc. Contrib. Papers, Stratosphere Ser. 2, 146 (1936).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cadle, R. D., Rubin, S., Glassbrook, C. I., and Magill, P. L., Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occ. Med. 2, 698 (1950).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cadle, R. D., “Micrurgic Identification of Chloride and Sulfate,” Monograph No. 3, American Geophysical Union, 1959, pp. 18–21.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Whitby, K., Paper presented at the Particulate Workshop conducted at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., August 1970.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    U.S. Public Health Service Publication No. 637, GPO, “Air Pollution Measurements of the National Air Sampling Network,” Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C., 1958.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zimmer, C. E., Tabor, E. C., and Stern, A. C., J. Air Poll. Control Assoc. 9, 136 (1959).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc., “Air Pollution Manual, Part I—Evaluation,” Detroit, 1960.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service, National Air Pollution Control Administration Publication No. AP-49, “Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter,” Washington, D.C., 1969.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sawicki, E., Elbert, W. C., Hauser, T. R., Fox, F. T., and Stanley, T. W., Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 21, 443 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Steffens, C., and Rubin, S., in “Proc. First Nat. Air Pollution Symp.,” Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1949.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Robinson, E., and Ludwig, F. L., Final report, Project PA-4788, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1964; Robinson, E., Ludwig, F. L., DeVries, J. E., and Hopkins, T. E., Final report, PA-4211, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1963.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Urone, P., Lutsep, H., Noyes, C. M., and Parcher, J. F., Environ. Sci. and Technol. 2, 611 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Johnstone, H. F., and Coughanowr, D. R., Ind. Eng. Chem. 50, 1169 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Robbins, R. C., Cadle, R. D., and Eckhardt, D. L., J. Meteorol. 16, 53 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Went, F. W., Scientific American 1955 (May), 63.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Adams, C. E., Farlow, N. H., and Schell, W. R., Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 18, 42 (1960).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cadle, R. D., Lazrus, A. L., Pollock, W. H., and Shedlovsky, J. P., in “Proc. meeting on Tropical Meteorology,” American Meteorological Society, Honolulu, June 1970.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Friend, J. P., High Altitude Sampling Program VI. HASP Purpose and Methods. DASA Report 1300, 1961.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lazrus, A., Lorange, E., and Lodge, Jr., J. P., “Trace Inorganics in Water,” Adv. in Chem. Ser. No. 73, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C., 1968, pp. 164 — 171.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Brewer, P. G., and Riley, J. P., Deep-Sea Research 12, 765 (1965).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Duce, R. A., Winchester, J. W., and Van Nahl, T. W., J. Geophys. Res. 70, 1775 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Winchester, J. W., and Duce, R. A., Tellus 18, 287 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cadle, R. D., and Robbins, R. C., Disc. Faraday Soc. 30, 155 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fenn, R. W., Gerber, H. E., and Wasshausen, D., J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 466 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cadle, R. D., Fischer, W. H., Frank, E. R., and Lodge, Jr., J. P., J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 100 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Blifford, I. H., and Gillette, D. A., Personal communication.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Junge, C., Tellus 5, 1 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Junge, C., J. Meteorol. 11, 323 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Junge, C., Tellus 8, 127 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lodge, Jr., J. P., Pate, J. B., Basbergill, W., Swanson, G. S., Hill, K. C., Lorange, E., and Lazrus, A. L., Final report on the National Precipitation Network, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., August 1968.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lazrus, A. L., Lorange, E., and Lodge, Jr., J. P., Environ. Sci. and Technol. 4, 55 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Neumann, G. H., Fonselius, S., and Wahlman, L., Int. J. Air Poll. 2, 132 (1959).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Goetz, A., Staub. 29, 357 (1969).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pasceri, R. E., and Friedlander, S. K., J. Atmos. Sci. 22, 577 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Clark, W. E., and Whitby, K. T., J. Atmos. Sci. 24, 677 (1967).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Blifford, Jr., I. H., and Ringer, L. D., J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 716 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Landsberg, H., “Atmospheric Condensation Nuclei,” Ergebn. Kosm. Phys. 3, 207 (1938) (Leipzig Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Twomey, S., and Severynse, G. T., J. Atmos. Sci. 20, 392 (1963); 21, 558 (1964).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Blifford, Jr., I. H., Geophys. Res. 75, 3099 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hidy, G. M., The Dynamics of Aerosols in the Lower Troposphere, presented at the Third Conference on Environmental Toxicology, New York, June 1970.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Friedlander, S. K., J. Meteorology 17, 479 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Friedlander, S. K., The Similarity Theory of the Particle Size Distribution of the Atmospheric Aerosols, in “Aerosols, Physical Chemistry and Applications,” K. Spurny, ed., Czechoslovak Acad. Sci., Prague, 1964, pp. 115–130.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Swift, D., and Friedlander, S. K., J. Colloid Sci. 19, 621 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Junge, C., J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 603 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Martell, E. A., and Poet, S. E., Personal communication.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rosen, J. M., Space Sci. Rev. 9, 58 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bigg, E. K., Tellus 16, 76 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Volz, F. E., and Goody, R. M., J. Atmos. Sci. 19, 385 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Volz, F. E., Science 144, 1121 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fiocco, G., and Grams, G., J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 323 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Schuster, B. G., J. Geophys. Res. 75, 3123 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rosen, J. M., J. Geophys. Res. 69, 4673 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rosen, J. M., Geophys. Res. 73, 479 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Junge, C. E., Chagnon, C. W., and Manson, J. E., J. Meteorol. 18, 81 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Junge, C. E., J. Meteorol. 18, 501 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Junge, C. E., and Manson, J. E., J. Geophys. Res. 66, 2163 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Friend, J. P., Tellus 18, 465 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cadle, R. D., and Thuman, W. C., Ind. Eng. Chem. 52, 315 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Murcray, D. G., Kyle, T. G., Murcray, F. H., and Williams, W. J., Nature 218, 78 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Goldman, A., Murcray, D. G., Murcray, F. H., Williams, W. J., and Bonomo, F. S., Nature 225, 443 (1970).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Shedlovsky, J. P., and Paisley, S., Tellus 18, 499 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Cadle, R. D., and Powers, J. W., Tellus 18, 176 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Cadle, R. D., Lazrus, A. L., and Shedlovsky, J. P., J. Geophys. Res. 74, 3372 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard D. Cadle
    • 1
  1. 1.National Center for Atmospheric ResearchBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations