Introduction and Solvent Properties

  • A. K. Covington
  • T. Dickinson


Physical chemists interested in electrolyte solutions have often been accused of being preoccupied with the properties of aqueous solutions. In view of the importance of water as a solvent essential to life, and its abundance on this planet, this attention may be understood if preoccupation is not. On the other hand the term non-aqueous solvents has often been interpreted as meaning various inorganic solvent systems such as those based on the oxides of nitrogen or sulphur, liquid ammonia, hydrogen fluoride and perhaps fused salts. Over the last decade or so, however, considerable interest has been generated in organic non-aqueous solvents particularly new ones like dimethylsulphoxide and propylene carbonate. Organic solvents show a wide range of dielectric constant ranging from that of P-dioxan (2.2) to those exceeding that of water like N-methylacetamide (165). However, the properties of the resulting solutions are not determined simply by the magnitude of the solvent dielectric constant, and attempts have been made recently to steer thoughts away from regarding the bulk solvent simply as a continuum characterised only by its dielectric constant.


Dielectric Constant Inorganic Salt High Dielectric Constant Propylene Carbonate Propylene Carbonate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. A1.
    M. J. Blandamer and D. Waddington, Adv. in Mol. Relaxation Processes,2, 1 (1970)Google Scholar
  2. A2.
    S. Petrucci and M. Battistini, J. Phys. Chem., 71, 1181 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. A3.
    M. J. Blandamer, M. J. Foster, N. J. Hidden and M. C. R. Symons, Trans. Faraday Soc., 64, 3247 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. A4.
    M. J. Blandamer, D. E. Clarke, N. J. Hidden and M. C. R. Symons, Trans. Faraday Soc., 64, 2683 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. A5.
    S. Petrucci et al., J. Phys. Chem.,71,1174, 3087, 3414 (1967)Google Scholar
  6. A6.
    S. C. Chen and J. P. Valleau, Can. J. Chem., 46, 853 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. A7.
    A. J. Parker, Chem. Rev., 69, 1 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. A8a.
    J. A. Riddick and W. B. Bunger, Organic Solvents, 3rd edition, Techniques of Chemistry, Vol. II (A. Weissburger, ed.), Wiley, New York (1970)Google Scholar
  9. A8b.
    G. J. Janz and R. P. T. Tomkins, Non-aqueous Electrolytes Handbook, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York (1972)Google Scholar
  10. A9.
    A. L. McClelland, Tables of Experimental Dipole Moments, Freeman, San Francisco, (1963)Google Scholar
  11. A10.
    W. Darmhauser and L. H. Bahe, J. Chem. Phys., 40, 3058 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. A11.
    F. Accascina and S. Petrucci, Ric. Sci., 30, 808 (1960)Google Scholar
  13. A12.
    N. Koizumi and T. Hanai, J. Phys. Chem., 60, 1496 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. A13.
    G. P. Cunningham, G. A. Vidulich and R. L. Kay, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 12, 336 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. A14.
    M. A. Matesich, J. A. Nadas and D. F. Evans, J. Phys. Chem., 74, 4568 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. A15.
    B. J. Barker and J. A. Caruso, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 93, 1341 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. A16.
    Private communication from J. E. Prue (1971)Google Scholar
  18. A17.
    L. A. K. Staveley (ed.), The Characterisation of Chemical Purity of Organic Compounds, Butterworths, London (1971)Google Scholar
  19. A18.
    F. Franks and D. J. G. Ives, Quart. Rev., 20, 1 (1966)Google Scholar
  20. A19.
    C. Agami, Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 1205 (1968)Google Scholar
  21. A20.
    A. Fratiello, R. E. Lee, V. M. Nishida and R. E. Schuster, J. Chem. Phys., 48, 3705 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. A21.
    N. F. Catherall and A. G. Williamson, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 16, 335 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. A22.
    D. R. Cogley, J. N. Butler and E. Grunwald, J. Phys. Chem., 75, 1477 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. A23.
    R. Jasinski, in Adv. Electrochem. and Electrochem. Eng., Vol. 8, pp. 253–332 (P. Delahay and C. W. Tobias, eds. ) (1971)Google Scholar
  25. A24.
    T. Fujinaga and K. Izutsu, Pure Appl. Chem., 25, 273 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. A25.
    J. F. O’Donnell, J. T. Ayres and C. K. Mann, Anal. Chem., 37, 1161 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. A26.
    J. F. Coetzee, Pure Appl. Chem., 13, 429 (1966)Google Scholar
  28. A27.
    J. Timmermans, I. N. LaFontaine and R. Phillippe, Mem. Acad. Roy. Belg., 37, 7–90 (1966)Google Scholar
  29. A28.
    R. Lindauer and L. M. Mukherjee, Pure Appl. Chem., 25, 265 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. A29.
    D. S. Reid and C. A. Vincent, J. Electroanal. Chem., 18, 427 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. A30.
    J. W. Vaughn, in The Chemistry of Non-Aqueous Solvents, Vol. II, pp. 191–264 (J. J. Lagowski, ed.), Academic Press, N.Y. (1967)Google Scholar
  32. A31.
    J. M. Notley and M. Spiro, J. Chem. Soc. B, 362 (1966)Google Scholar
  33. A32.
    C. M. French and K. H. Glover, Trans. Faraday Soc., 51, 1418 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. A33.
    J. E. Prue and P. J. Sherrington, Trans. Faraday Soc., 57, 1795 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. A34.
    G. Jander and G. Winkler, J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 9, 24, 32, 39 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. A35.
    L. A. Knecht, Pure Appl. Chem., 25, 281 (1971)Google Scholar
  37. A36.
    T. B. Hoover, J. Phys. Chem., 73, 57 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. A37.
    H. Normant, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 6, 1046 (1967); Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 791 (1968)Google Scholar
  39. A38.
    C. Sinicki and M. Porteix, J. Electroanal. Chem., 34, 439 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. A39.
    M. Breant, Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 725 (1971)Google Scholar
  41. A40.
    H. H. Szmant, in Dimethyl Sulfoxide, pp. 1–87 (S. W. Jacob, E. E. Rosenbaum and D. C. Wood, eds.), Dekker, New York (1971)Google Scholar
  42. A41.
    T. B. Reddy, Pure Appl. Chem., 25, 457 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. A42.
    G. J. Safford, P. C. Schaffer, P. S. Leung, G. F. Doebbler, G. W. Brady and E. F. X. Lyden, J. Chem. Phys., 50, 2140 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Company Ltd 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Covington
    • 1
  • T. Dickinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physical ChemistryUniversity of Newcastle upon TyneEngland

Personalised recommendations