Advertisement

The Biochemistry of Demyelination and Demyelinating Diseases

  • B. Gerstl

Abstract

Wallerian degeneration was the first experimental model of demyelination devised and has been widely investigated both structurally and biochemically. After severing a peripheral nerve there is increasing loss of cerebrosides, sphingomyelin, cholesterol and phospholipids, that of the cephalins starting earlier and exceeding that of lecithin [1]. During the first 14 days after neurotomy the decrease of fatty aldehydes exceeds that of phosphatides and of fatty acid esters [2]. The fatty acids of the total lipids [3] decrease at different rates: C16 : 1 and C18 : 2 starting earlier, the PUFA at 16 days. PI remains constant until the 32nd day after injury. Cholesterol esters are found in significant amounts as early as eight days [3]. Loss of lipids, as well as increased neutral proteinase activity [4, 5, 6], proceed until approximately the 32nd day. Then resynthesis of lipids starts and continues up to the 132nd day but the quantity synthesized does not reach the amount seen in the controls [1, 7]. There is overlapping of these processes, and the phagocytosis and catabolism of myelin by the Schwann cells, and esterification of cholesterol. Sequential study [8] reveals that myelin formed last is the first to fall prey to the degenerative process, progressing toward the one laid down first. 14C-labelled choline, ethanolamine or serine administered during the phase of remyelination in rats are incorporated in greater amounts into the lipids of the regenerating nerve than into the intact control. This is noted up to eight weeks after the injury [7].

Keywords

White Matter Schwann Cell Cholesterol Ester Gamma Globulin Lignoceric Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

References

  1. 1.
    N. S. Burt, A. R. McNabb and R. J. Rossiter, Biochem. J., 47, 318 (1950)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Domonkos and L. Heiner, J. Neurochem., 15, 87 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. F. Berry, W. H. Cevallos and R. R. Wade, Jr., JAOCS., 42, 492 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Porcellati and B. Curti, J. Neurochem., 5, 277 (1960)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. F. Hallpike, C. W. M. Adams and O. B. Bayliss, Histochem. J., 2, 209 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. F. Hallpike, C. W. Adams and O. B. Bayliss, Histochem. J., 2, 323 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Nicholls and R. J. Rossiter, J. Neurochem., 11, 813 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. G. Simon, R. R. Wade, J. E. DeLarco and M-L. Baker, J. Neurochem., 16, 1435 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Cravioto, Los Angeles Neurol. Soc. Bull., 34, 233 (1969)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. DeF. Webster, J. Cell Biol., 12, 361 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Holtzman and A. B. Novikoff, J. Cell Biol., 27, 651 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    T. Samorajski, J. Histochem. Cytochem., 5, 15 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. A. Luse and R. E. McCaman, Amer. J. Path., 33, 586 (1957)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. E. McCaman and E. Robins, J. Neurochem., 5, 18 (1959)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. M. Daniel and S. J. Strich, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 12, 314 (1969)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. W. Lampert and M. R. Cressman, Amer. J. Path., 49, 1139 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Bignami and H. J. Ralston, Brain Res., 13, 444 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. J. Perez, J. W. Olney, T. J. Cicero, B. W. Moore and B. A. Bahn, J. Neurochem., 17, 511 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Waite, G. L. Scherphof, F. M. G. Boshouwers and L. L. M. Van Deenen, J. Lipid Res., 10, 411 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. E. Lumsden, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 13, 1 (1950)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Levine and W. Stypulkowski, Arch. Path., 67, 306 (1959)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Hirner, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 13, 350 (1969)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. W. Hurst, Aust. J. exp. Biol. Med. Sci., 18, 201 (1940)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    W. H. Houten and R. L. Friede, Exp. Neurol., 4, 402 (1961)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Z. M. Ibrahim, P. B. Briscoe, O. B. Bayliss and C. W. M. Adams, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 26, 479 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Hirano, S. Levine and H. M. Zimmerman, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 26, 200 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adolfo F. Fernandez, J. Gonzalez-Quintana and M. Russek, Am. J. Physiol., 204, 314 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    N. H. Bass, Neurology, Minneap., 18, 167 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. E. Smith, Trans. amer. Soc. Neurochem., 1, 111 (1970)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. R. Mahler and E. H. Cordes (eds), Biological Chemistry, p. 256. Harper & Row, New York and London (1966)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Serra, G. Amore and V. Bonavita, Riv. Pat. nerv. ment., 90, 69 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    N. Oshino, Y. Imai and R. Sato, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 128, 13 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    W. Stoffel and H. G. Schiefer, Hoppe Seyler Z. Physiol. Chem., 345, 41 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. P. Blaustein and A. L. Hodgkin, J. Physiol., Lond., 200, 497 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    F. A. Vandenheuvel, JAOCS, 42, 481 (1964)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. B. Courville, J. nerv. ment. Dis., 125, 534 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    F. Seitelberger and K. Jellinger, Wien. klin. Wschr., 74, 422 (1960)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    H. Shiraki, Advances Neurol. Sci. (Tokyo), 12, 389 (1968)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    H. Garland and J. Pearce, Quart. J. Med., 36, 445 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Meyer, Z. ges. Neurol. Psychiat., 112, 172 (1928)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    K. Jellinger, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 1, 411 (1962)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    T. Miyagishi and N. Suwa, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 14, 118 (1969)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Wender, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 2, 371 (1963)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    C.J. Estler, H. P. T. Ammon and V. Zimmerman, Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmak. exp. Path., 263, 204 (1968)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    T. W. Rall and E. W. Sutherland, J. biol. Chem., 232, 1065 (1958)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. I. Drummond, J. Keith and M. W. Gilgan, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 105, 156 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Klingenberg, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 75, 376 (1958)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. Garfinkel, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 77, 493 (1958)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    L. D. Wilson and B. W. Harding, Biochemistry, 9, 1621 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    H. Bankl and K. Jellinger, Beitr. Path. Anat., 135, 350 (1967)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. Gombault, Arch. Neurol., Paris, 1, 11 (1880)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Editorial, Lancet, 1, 704 (1970)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    P. M. Fullerton, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 25, 214 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    S. S. Schochet, Jr. and J. C. Harkin, Lead Neuropathy in Rats. Unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    K. Cramer and S. Selander, Brit. J. indust. Med., 22, 311 (1965)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    S. Selander and K. Cramer, Brit. J. indust. Med., 27, 28 (1970)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    N. Popoff, S. Weinberg and I. Feigen, Neurology, Minneap., 13, 101 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    A. Pentschew and F. Garro, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 6, 266 (1966)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    A. J. Raimondi, F. Beckman and J. P. Evans, Trans. amer. Neurol. Assoc., 9, 322 (1966)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    P. W. Lampert and S. S. Schochet, Jr., J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 27, 527 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    W. W. Schlaepfer, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 28, 401 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    A. Goldberg, Quart. J. Med. 28, 183 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    J. B. Gibson and A. Goldberg, J. Path. Bact., 71, 495 (1956)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. Kreimer-Birnbaum and M. Grinstein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 111, 110 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. Grinstein, R. M. Bannerman and C. V. Moore, Blood, 14, 476 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    J.J. Chisholm, Jr., J. Pediat., 64, 174 (1964)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    P. W. Majerus and P. R. Vagelos, Adv. Lipid Res., 5, 1 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    A. R. Larrabee, E. G. McDaniel, H. A. Bakerman and P. R. Vagelos, Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 54, 267 (1965)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    C. J. Chesterton, P. H. W. Butterworth, A. S. Abramovitz, E. J. Jacob and J. W. Porter, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 124, 386 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    J. S. O’Brien, Science, 147, 1099 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    P. Meyer, Virchow Arch. Path. Anat., 85, 181 (1881)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    E. Stransky, J. Psychol. Neurol., 1, 169 (1902)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    B. H. Waksman, R. D. Adams and H. C. Mansmann, Jr., J. exp. Med., 105, 591 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    J. B. Cavanagh and J. M. Jacobs, Brit. J. exp. Path., 45, 309 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    R. O. Weller, J. Path. Bact., 89, 591 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    R. O. Weller and R. S. Mellick, Brit. J. exp. Path., 47, 425 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    J. F. Hallpike and C. W. M. Adams, Histochem. J., 1, 559 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    N. Strauss, J. exp. Med., 112, 351 (1960)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    I. Kato and A. M. Pappenheimer, Jr., J. exp. Med., 112, 329 (1960)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    D. F. Matheson, J. Neurochem., 15, 179 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    I. Kato and H. Sato, Japan J. exp. Med., 32, 495 (1962)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    R. I. Collier and A. M. Pappenheimer, J. exp. Med., 120, 1019 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    R. L. Sidman, M. M. Dickie and S. H. Appel, Science, 144, 309 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    J. L. Nussbaum, N. M. Neskovic, D. M. Kostic, P. Mandel, Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol., 50, 2194 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    C. Galli, D. re Cecconi Galli, Nature (Lond.), 220, 165 (1968)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    D. M. Bowen and N. S. Radin, J. Neurochem., 16, 457 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    E. L. Hogan, K. C. Joseph and G. Schmidt, J. Neurochem., 17, 75 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    N. Neskovic, J. L. Nussbaum and P. Mandel, Brain Res., 21, 39 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    C. Galli, G. M. Kneebone and R. Paoletti, Life Sciences, 8, 911 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    C. M. Jacque, M. L. Harpin and N. A. Baumann, Europ. J. Biochem., 11, 218 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    N. A. Baumann, C. M. Jacque, S. A. Pollet and M. L. Harpin, Europ. J. Biochem., 4, 340 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    D. Kostic, J. L. Nussbaum and P. Mandel, Life Sciences, 8, 1135 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    M. K. Wolf and A. B. Holden, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 28, 195 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    T. Kurihara, J. L. Nussbaum and P. Mandel, Brain Res. (Amst.), 13, 401 (1969)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    G. A. Robison, R. W. Butcher and E. W. Sutherland, Ann. Rev. Biochem., 37, 149 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    E. DeRobertis, G. Rodriguez de Lores Arnaiz and M. Alberici, J. biol. Chem., 242, 3487 (1967)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    P. R. Davoren and E. W. Sutherland, J. biol. Chem., 238, 3016 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    M. Rubinowitz, L. Desalles, J. Meisler and L. Lorand, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 97, 29 (1965)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    N. A. Baumann, M. L. Harpin and J. M. Bourre, Nature (Lond.), 227, 960 (1970)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    H. Meier and A. D. MacPike, Exp. Brain Res., 10, 512 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    R. Fankhauser, H. Luginbuhl and W. Hartley, Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilk., 105, 198 (1963)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    B. Jortner and A. Jonas, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 10, 171 (1968)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    J. D. Austin, D. Armstrong and G. Margolis, Trans. amer. Neurol. Ass., 93, 181 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Y. Suzuki, J. Austin, D. Armstrong, K. Suzuki, J. Schlenker and T. Fletcher, Exp. Neurol., 29, 65 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    I. Uchimura and H. Shiraki, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 16, 139 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    S. Lackermeier, Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilk., 108, 581 (1966)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    K. Jellinger and F. Seitelberger, Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk., 184, 508 (1963)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    M. Serban and M. Matei, Stud. Cercet. Neurol., 14, 279 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    B. H. Waksman, Int. Arch. Allergy, Suppl. to Vol. 14, 1 (1959)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    J. Olszewski, In Allergic Encephalomylelitis ( M. W. Kies, ed.), p. 172. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois (1952)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    M. Vulpe, A. Hawkins, B. Rozdilsky, Neurology (Minneap.), 10, 171 (1960)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    R. W. P. Cutler, A. V. Lorenzo and C. F. Barlow, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 26, 558 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    A. Ridley, Z. Immun. Forsch., 125, 173 (1963)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    E. Frick, Zbl. ges. Neurol., 180, 218 (1965)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    H. C. Rauch and S. Raffel, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 122, 297 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    P. Lampert, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 9, 99 (1967)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    P. W. Lampert and M. W. Kies, Exp. Neurol., 18, 210 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    G. Benetato and E. Gabrielescu, Ann. histochim., 9, 295 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    G. Benetato, E. Gabrielescu and I. Boros, Rev. Rouman. Physiol., 2, 379 (1965)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    E. Gabrielescu, Wien. Z. Nervenheilk., Suppl. 11, 70 (1960)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    M. E. Smith, J. Neurochem., 16, 1099 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Gr. Benetato, St. Secâreanu, E. Neumann, V. Vasilescu and G. Schmidt, St. cerc. med. Cluj., 10, 17 (1959)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    M. Wender, T. Wroblewski, Z. Adamczewska, M. Owsianowski and B. Zgorzalewicz, Neuropat. pol., 7, 311 (1969)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    E. Roboz, N. Henderson and M. W. Kies, J. Neurochem., 2, 254 (1958)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    E. R. Einstein, D. M. Robertson, J. M. DiCaprio and W. Moore, J. Neurochem., 9, 353 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    E. H. Eylar and M. Thompson, Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 129, 468 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    F. B. Palmer and R. M. C. Dawson, Biochem. J., 111, 629 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    L-P. Chao and E. R. Einstein, J. biol. Chem., 234, 6050 (1968)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    E. R. Einstein, J. Csejtey, W. J. Davis, A. Lajtha and N. Marks, Int. Arch. Allergy, 36, 363 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    R. Kibler, R. Shapira, S. McKneally, S. Jenkins, P. Seiden, F. Chou, Science, 164, 577 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    E. H. Eylar and G. Hashim, Proc. nat. Acad. Sci., 61, 644 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    E. H. Eylar, J. Caccam and J. J. Jackson, Science, 168, 1220 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    L-P. Chao and E. R. Einstein, J. biol. Chem., 245, 6397 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    R. J. Swanborg, Fed. Proc., 29, 726 (1970)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    L-P. Chao and E. R. Einstein, J. Neurochem., 17, 1121 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    I. Klatzo, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 26, 1 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. N. Cumings, J. clin. Path., 14, 289 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. M. Hauser, H. J. Svien, B. F. McKenzie, W. F. McGuckin and N. P. Golstein, Neurology (Minneap.), 13, 945 (1963)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Nakazawa, Neurology (Minneap.), 19, 269 (1969)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Ishii, H. Tsuji, K. Ozawa, Y. Kondo and J. P. Evans, In Brain Edema ( I. Klatzo and F. Seitelberger, eds), p. 32. Springer-Verlag, New York (1967)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Yanagihara and J. N. Cumings, Arch. Neurol., 19, 241 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Jacob, Ztschr. ges. Neurol., 168, 382 (1940)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. Yanagihara and J. N. Cumings, Brain, 92, 59 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Sato, M. Yamaguchi, S. Mullan, J. P. Evans and S. Ishii, Arch. Neurol., 21, 413 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. Yanagihara, N. P. Goldstein, H. J. Svien and R. C. Bahn, Neurol., 17, 669 (1967)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    I. Feigin, In Brain Edema (I. Klatzo and F. Seitelberger, eds), p. 128. Springer-Verlag, New York (1967)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. E. Kalsbeck and J. N. Cumings, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 22, 237 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. Torack, J. Gordon and J. Prokop, Int. Rev. Neurobiol., 12, 45 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Hirano, H. M. Zimmerman and S. Levine, J. Cell Biol., 31, 397 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Hirano, H. M. Zimmerman and S. Levine, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 27, 571 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. K. Gonatas, H. M. Zimmerman and S. Levine, Amer. J. Path., 42, 455 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. L. Osterholm and J. Pyenson, J. Neurosurg., 31, 417 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. Pausescu, R. Lugojan and M. Pausescu, Brain, 93, 31 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. L. Terplan, Amer. J. Path., 13, 664 (1937)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. G. Knauff, D. Marx and G. Mayer, Hoppe Seyler Z. Physiol. Chem., 326, 227 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    W. W. Wells, T. A. Pittman, H. J. Wells and T. J. Egan, J. boil. Chem., 240, 1002 (1965)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. R. Huttenlocher, R. E. Hillman and Y. E. Hsia, J. Pediat., 76, 902 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    W. Blackwood and J. N. Cumings, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 17, 33 (1954)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. M. Norman, O. R. Oppenheimer and A. H. Tingey, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 24, 223 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Austin, Arch. Neurol., 9, 207 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. H. Austin, J. Neurochem., 10, 921 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. N. D’Agostino, G. P. Sayre and A. B. Hayles, Arch. Neurol, 8, 82 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. H. Austin and D. Lehfeldt, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 24, 265 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    E. J. Yunis and R. E. Lee, Science, 169, 64 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. Suzuki and W. D. Grover, Arch. Neurol., 22, 385 (1970)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. S. Schochet, J. M. Hardman, P. W. Lampert and K. M. Earle, Arch. Path., 88, 305 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. M. Andrews and P. A. Cancilla, Arch. Path., 89, 53 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C.-M. Shaw and C. B. Carlson, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 29, 306 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. Mei Liu, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 29, 441 (1970)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. N. Cumings and B. Rozdilsky, Neurology (Minneap.), 15, 177 (1965)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. Peiffer, Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 195, 446 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    H. Pilz, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 4, 16 (1964)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. H. Menkes, C. Duncan and J. Moossy, Neurology (Minneap.), 16, 581 (1966)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    H. Jatzkewitz and E. Mehl, Hoppe Seyler Z. Physiol. Chem., 329, 264 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    B. Gerstl, L. J. Rubinstein, L. F. Eng and M. Tavaststjerna, Arch. Neurol., 15, 603 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Y. Eto, K. Suzuki and K. Suzuki, J. Lipid Res., 11, 473 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. N. Cumings, E. J. Thompson and H. Goodwin, J. Neurochem., 15, 243 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    B. K. Bachhawat, J. Austin and D. Armstrong, Biochem. J., 104, 15c (1967)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. Austin, B. Bachhawat, D. Armstrong, D. Stumpf, L. Kretschmer, C. Mitchell and B. Van Zee, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 27, 141 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. Austin, K. Suzuki, D. Armstrong, R. Brady, B. K. Bachhawat, J. Schlenker and D. Stumpf, Arch. Neurol, 23, 502 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. M. McKhann, R. Levy and W. Ho, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 20, 109 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    K. Suzuki and Y. Suzuki, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., U.S., 66, 302 (1970)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    B. D. Lake, Nature (Lond.), 217, 171 (1968)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    P. Sourander and Y. Olsson, Acta neuropath., 11, 69 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Bischoff and J. Ulrich, Brain, 92, 861 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. H. Austin, Trans. Amer. Neurol. Ass., 83, 149 (1958)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    H. Jatzkewitz, Hoppe Seyler Z. Physiol. Chem., 311, 279 (1958)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    B. Hagberg, P. Sourander, L. Svennerholm and H. Voss, Acta Paediat., 48, 200 (1959)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    G. Aurebeck, K. Osterberg, M. Blaw, S. Chou and E. Nelson, Arch. Neurol., 11, 273 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. Resibois, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 13, 149 (1969)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    A. Gregoire, O. Perier and P. Dustin, Jr., J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 25, 617 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki and G. Chen, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 26, 154 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    W. T. Norton and S. E. Podulso, In Variation in the Chemical Composition of the Nervous System ( G. B. Ansell, ed.), p. 82. Pergamon, Oxford (1966)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. N. Cumings, E. J. Thompson and H. Goodwin, J. Neurochem., 15, 243 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. N. Cumings, Neuropat. Pol., 7, 255 (1969)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. H. Austin, Neurology (Minneap.), 7, 415 (1957)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    B. Hagberg and L. Svennerholm, Acta Paediat., 48, 632 (1959)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    B. Hagberg and L. Svennerholm, Acta Paediat., 49, 690 (1960)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    B. Hagberg, P. Sourander and L. Svennerholm, Cereb. Palsy Bull., 3, 438 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    A. K. Percy and R. O. Brady, Science, 161, 594 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    B. Hagberg, P. Sourander and L. Svennerholm, Am. J. Dis. Child., 104, 94, (1962)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    H. Pilz and D. Müller, J. Neurol. Sci., 9, 585 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    G. W. F. Edgar, Psychiat. Neurol. Neurochir., 64, 28 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    H. Jatzkewitz, Neurochemistry Symposium, VIIth International Congress of Neurology, Rome (1961) p. 13Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    E. Mehl and H. Jatzkewitz, Hoppe Seyler Z. Physiol. Chem., 331, 292 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. Austin, D. McAfee, D. Armstrong, M. O’Rourke, L. Shearer and R. Bachhawat, Biochem. J., 93, 15C (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    J. Austin, D. McAfee and L. Shearer, Arch. Neurol., 12, 447 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    E. Mehl and H. Jatzkewitz, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 151, 619 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    H. Jatzkewitz and E. Mehl, J. Neurochem., 16, 19 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. T. Porter, A. L. Fluharty and H. Kihara, Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 62, 887 (1969)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    R. Julius, B. Buehler, A. Aylsworth, L. St. Petery, O. Rennert and M. Greer, Neurology (Minneap.), 21, 15 (1971)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    H. W. Moser, A. B. Moser and G. M. McKhann, Arch. Neurol., 17, 494 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    M. Ohta and T. Iwayama, Brain Nerve (Tokyo), 22, 557 (1970)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    H. L. Greene, G. Hug and W. K. Schubert, Arch. Neurol., 20, 147 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    J. C. Melchior and J. Clausen, Acta Paediat., 57, 2 (1968)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    R. M. Norman and A. H. Tingey, In Brain Lipids and Lipoproteins and the Leucodystrophies ( J. Folch-Pi and H. J. Bauer, eds), p. 169. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1963)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    F. Seitelberger, In Brain Lipids and lipoproteins and the Leucodystrophies ( J. Folch-Pi and H. J. Bauer, eds), p. 187. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1963)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    L. Crome and M. Zapella, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 26, 413 (1963)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    F. Lindlar, K. Nagai and A. Vogel, Hoppe Seyler Z. Physiol. Chem., 347, 1 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    J. N. Cumings, Brain, 78, 554 (1955)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    E. Bargeton-Farkas and G. W. F. Edgar, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 3, 578 (1964)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Y. Tsuchiya, T. Numabe and S. Yokoi, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 16, 353 (1970)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    E. Nelson, K. Osterberg, M. Blaw, J. Story and P. Kozak, Neurology (Minneap.), 12, 896 (1962)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    P. J. Dyck, J. N. Cumings and J. Olszewski, Neurology (Minneap.), 10, 765 (1960)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    W. T. Norton, S. E. Poduslo and K. Suzuki, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 25, 582 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki and S. Kamoshita, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 28, 25 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Y. Suzuki, S. H. Tucker, L. B. Rorke and K. Suzuki, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 29, 405 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    M. J. Eadie, Proc. Aust. Assn. Neurol., 4, 63 (1966)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    M. E. Blaw, K. Osterberg, P. Kozak and E. Nelson, Arch. Neurol., 11, 626 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    D. Hoefnagel, S. Van Den Noort and S. H. Ingbar, Brain, 85, 553 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    R. W. Turkington and R. S. Stempfel, Jr., J. Pediat., 69, 406 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    A. Fanconi, A. Prader, W. Isler, F. Luthy and R. Siebenmann, Hely. Paediat. Acta, 18, 480 (1963)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    W. C. Watson and E. Murray, J. Lipid Res., 7, 236 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    J. K. Smith, B. Gerstl, M. G. Tavaststjerna and W. R. Porter, Neurol., 11, 395 (1961)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    K. Suzuki and G. C. Chen, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 25, 396 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    K. Suzuki, In Inborn Disorders of Sphingolipid Metabolism ( S. M. Aronson and B. W. Volk, eds), p. 215. Pergamon Press, Oxford (1967)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    R. Ledeen, K. Salsman and M. Cabrera, J. Lipid Res., 9, 129 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    J. Peiffer and E. Zerbin-Rüdin, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 3, 87 (1963)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    K. Jellinger and F. Seitelberger, Acta neuropath. (Berlin), 14, 108 (1969)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    B. Gerstl, N. Malamud, R. B. Hayman and P. R. Bond, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 28, 540 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    I. Watanabe, R. McCaman, P. Dyken and W. Zeman, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 28, 243 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    W. Spielmeyer, Z. ges. Neurol. Psychiat., 32, 203 (1923)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    M. Bielschowsky and R. Henneberg, J. Psychol. Neurol. (Lpz.), 36, 131 (1928)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    C. M. Poser and L. van Bogaert, Acta psychiat. scand., 31, 285 (1956)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    W. Zeman, W. Demyer and H. F. Falls, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 23, 334 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    A. Allegranza, P. M. Alleva, I. Cescon and G. P. Strada, Acta Neurol. Napoli, 23, 895 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    H. Bernheimer (personal communication)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    G. Brante, Acta physiol. scand., 18, Suppl. 63 (1949)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    C. M. Plum and S. E. Hansen, Acta psychiat. neurol. scand., Suppl. 141, 84 (1960)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Y. Kishimoto, N. S. Radin, W. W. Tourtellotte, J. H. Parker and H. H. Itaboshi, Arch. Neurol., 16, 44 (1967)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    H. Bauer and R. Heitmann, Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk., 178, 47 (1958)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    B. Gerstl, M. J. Kahnke, J. K. Smith, M. G. Tavaststjerna and R. B. Hayman, Brain, 84, 310 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    P. F. Borri, R. P. Bertinelli, V. Toso, M. Taramelli, M. Paci and A. Pacini, Acta neurol., Napoli, 24, 593 (1969)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    E. Sluga, Wien. Z. Nervenheilk., Suppl. 2, 59 (1969)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    E. R. Einstein, K. B. Dalal and J. Csejtey, J. Neurol. Sci.,11, 109 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    B. W. Moore, Bio chem. Biophys. Res. Comm., 19, 739 (1965)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    L. F. Eng, B. Gerstl and J. J. Vanderhaeghen, Transactions Amer. Soc. forNeurochem., 1, 52 (1970)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    M. Wender and M. Kozik, Acta neuropath., 13, 143 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    R. L. Friede and M. Knoller, Experientia, 20, 130 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    J. Clausen, W. Gerhardt, C. Petri et al. Acta neurol. scand., 40, Suppl. 10, p. 77 (1964)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    M. Z. M. Ibrahim and C. W. M. Adams, J. Path. Bact., 90, 239 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    J. F. Hallpike, C. W. M. Adams and O. B. Bayliss, Histochem. J., 2, 199 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    P. J. Riekkinen, J. Clausen, H. J. Frey, T. Fog and U. K. Rinne, Acta neurol. scand., 46, 349 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    J. N. Cumings, Brain, 76, 551 (1953)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    A. N. Davison and M. Wajda, J. Neurochem., 9, 427 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    J. N. Cumings and H. Goodwin, Lancet, 2, 664 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    B. Gerstl, M. G. Tavaststjerna, R. B. Hayman, J. K. Smith and L F. Eng, J. Neurochem., 10, 889 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    G. Arnetoli, A. Pazzagli and L. Amaducci, J. Neurochem.,16, 461 (19 70)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    B. Gerstl, L. F. Eng, M. Tavaststjerna, J. K. Smith and S. L. Kruse, J. Neurochem., 17, 677 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    R. H. S. Thompson, R. Niemino and G. R. Webster, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 43, 142 (1960)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    G. R. Webster and R. H. S. Thompson, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 63, 38 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    G. R. Webster and R. J. Alpern, Biochem. J., 90, 35 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    F. Lindlar, Naturwissenschaften, 23, 543 (1962)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    G. R. Webster and R. H. S. Thompson, Nature (Lond.), 206, 296 (1965)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    E. Schuller, C. Rouques, M. Loridan, Wien. Z. Nervenheilk., Suppl. 2, 104 (1969)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    B. Gerstl, C. T. Uyeda, L. F. Eng, P. Bond and J. K. Smith, Neurology (Minneap.), 19, 1019 (1969)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    W. W. Tourtellotte and J. A. Parker, Nature (Lond.), 214, 683 (1967)Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    S. U. Kim, M. R. Murray, W. W. Tourtellotte and J. A. Parker, J. Neuropath exp. Neurol., 29, 420 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    K. Warecka and D. Muller, J. Neurol. Sci., 8, 329 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    K. Warecka, J. Neurochem., 17, 829 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    K. Warecka and H. J. Bauer, Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk., 194, 66 (1968)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    C. H. Koenig, In Handbook of Neurochemistry (A. Lajtha, ed.), p. 235, Vol. 2. Plenum Press, New York (1969)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    S. S. Oja and H. Oja, J. Neurochem., 17, 901 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    T. Semba and M. Civen, J. Neurochem., 17, 795 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    P. J. Riekkinen and U. K. Rinne, VI Congres International de Neuropathologie, Paris, p. 490 (1970)Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    G. B. Ansell and S. Spanner, Biochem. J., 94, 252 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    G. B. Ansell and S. Spanner, Biochem. J., 106, 19–20 (1968)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    R. H. Laatsch, M. W. Kies, S. Gordon and E. C. Alvord, Jr., J. exp. Med., 115, 777 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    L. A. Autilio, W. T. Norton and R. D. Terry, J. Neurochem., 11, 17 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    J. Clausen and I. Berg Hansen, Acta neurol. scand., 46, 1 (1970)Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    F. Wolfgram, M. E. Fewster, J. F. Mead, personal communication (1970)Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    J. N. Cumings, Neuropat. Pol., 7, 255 (1969)Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    M. E. Fewster, J. F. Mead, F. J. Wolfgram, W. W. Tourtellotte, Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med., 133, 795–800 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    B. Gerstl, L. F. Eng, R. B. Hayman, M. G. Tavaststjerna and P. R. Bond, J. Neurochem., 14, 661 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    L. F. Eng, F. C. Chao, B. Gerstl, D. Pratt and M. G. Tavaststjerna, Biochem., 7, 4455 (1968)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    E. A. Kabat, D. H. Moore and H. Landow, J. Clin. Invest., 21, 571 (1942)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    E. A. Kabat, M. Glusman and V. Knaub, Amer. J. Med., 4, (1948)Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    E. R. Einstein and P. Cerutti, Int. Arch. Allergy, 36, 355 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    J. Clausen, T. Fog and E. R. Einstein, Acta neurol. scand., 45, 513 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    S. Takase and M. Yoshida, Tohoku J. exp. Med., 98, 189 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    S. A. Schneck and H. N. Claman, Arch. Neurol., 20, 132 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    E. Schuller, C. Rouques and M. Loridan, Wien. Z. Nervenheilk., Suppl. 2, 104 (1969)Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    R. M. Schmidt, Dtsch. Gesundh.-Wes., 24, 289 (1969)Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    J. Vymazal, Cas Lék. ces., 107, 1422 (1968)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    R. M. Schmidt and H. Diessner, Wien. Z. Nervenheilk., 27, Suppl. 2, 138 (1969)Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    K. Arko, Wien. Z. Nervenheilk., Suppl. 1, 185 (1966)Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    J. Panagiotopoulos, G. Pernhaupt and H. Tschabitscher, Wien. Z. Nervenheilk., Suppl. 1, 195 (1966)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    K. Schapira and D. C. Park, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 24, 121 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    W. W. Tourtellotte and J. A. Parker, Trans. Amer. Neurol. Assoc., 90, 107 (1965)Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    E. C. Laterre, A. Callewaert, J. F. Heremans and Z. Sfaello, Neurology (Minneap.), 20, 982 (1970)Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    H. Link and O. Zettervall, Clin. & Exp. Immunol., 6, 435 (1970)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    H. Link and O. Zettervall, Clin. & Exp. Immunol., 7, 365 (1970)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    G. L. Dioli, S. Mazzoni and M. Ferrucci, Riv. Neurobiol., 15, 63 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    I. Fowler, C. E. Morris and T. Whiteley, New Eng. J. Med., 275, 1041 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    E. Frick and H. Stickl, Klin. Wschr., 46, 1066 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    J. A. Brody, M. M. Harlem, J. F. Kurtzke and L. R. White, New Eng. J. Med., 279, 202 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    L. Koulischer and J. Stenuit, A cta neurol. belg., 68, 571 (1968)Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    S. Strandgaard,Acta neurol. scand., 46, 252 (1970)Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    R. M. Herndon and M. J. Johnson, J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol., 29, 320 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    U. Rinne and P. Riekkinen, Acta neurol. scand., 44, 156 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    A. L. Sherwin, J. W. Norris and J. A. Bulckle, Neurology (Minneap.), 19, 993 (1969)Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    E. Kuwert, K. Noll and W. Firnhaber, Z. Immunit. forsch., Allerg. & Klin. Immun., 135, 462–480 (1968)Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    J. Clausen and T. Fog, Int. Arch. Allergy, 36, 649 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    W. W. Tourtellotte and A. F. Haerer, Arch. Neurol., 20, 605 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    C. M. Plum, Acta psychiat. neurol. scand., Suppl. 148, 35 (1960)Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    E. Roboz, W. C. Hess, F. M. Forster and D. M. Temple, A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 72, 154 (1954)Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    N. K. Freeman and B. V. Siegel, Amer. J. Med. Sci., 238, 101 /727 (1959)Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    R. W. R. Baker, H. Sanders, R. H. S. Thompson and K. J. Zilkha, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 28, 212 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    A. Montfoort, R. W. R. Baker, R. H. S. Thompson and K. J. Zilkha, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 29, 99 (1966)Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    S. Gul, A. D. Smith, R. H. S. Thompson, H. Payling Wright and K. J. Zilkha, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 33, 506 (1970)Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    M. Nathanson and J. P. Savitsky, Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med., 28, 462 (1952)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    T. Fog, I. Kristensen and H. F. Helweg-Larsen, Arch. Neurol., 73, 267 (1955)Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    H. P. Wright, R. H. S. Thompson and K. J. Zilkha, Lancet, 2, 1109 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    I. Huszak and L. Heiner, Proceedings 8th International Congress of Neurology, Vienna, p. 33 (1965)Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    E. Svennerholm, S. Stallbergstenhagen and L. Svennerholm, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 125, 60 (1966)Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    E. L. Hirvisalo,Ann. Acad. Sci. Penn., 11 Chem., 146, 61 (1969)Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    D. Oesterhelt, C. Riepertinger and F. Lynen, Europ. J. Biochem., 10, 377 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    R. L. Swank, New Eng. J. Med., 246, 721 (1952)Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    H. M. Sinclair, Lancet, 1, 381 (1956)Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    L. A. Witting, C. C. Harvey, B. Century and M. K. Horwitt, J. Lipid Res., 2, 412 (1961)Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    H. Mohrhauer and R. T. Holman, J. Neurochem., 7, 523 (1963)Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    L. Rathbone, Biochem. J., 97, 620 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    J. Clausen and I. B. Hansen, Acta neurol. scand., 46, 1–7 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    O. Perier and A. Gregorie, Brain, 88, 937 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    K. Suzuki, J. M. Andrews, J. M. Waltz and R. Terry, Lab. Invest., 20, 444 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    U. K. Rinne, Ann. Med. Int. Fenn., 57, 179–183 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    A. Bignami and H. B. Parry, Science, 171, 389–390 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    K. Moldave, J. biol. Chem., 210, 343 (1954)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    G. Miroff, W. E. Cornatzer and R. G. Fischer, J. biol. Chem., 228, 255 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    J. M. Tiffany and H. A. Slough, Sci., 163, 573 (1969)Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    J. M. Adams and D. T. Imagawa, Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. Med., 8, 562 (1962)Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    J. M. Adams, Neurology (Minneap.), 17, 707 (1967)Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    C. A. C. Ross, J. A. R. Lenman and I. D. Melville, Brit. med. J., 3, 512 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    E. A. Caspary, M. E. Chambers and E. J. Field, Neurology (Minneap.), 19, 1038 (1969)Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    J. L. Sever, J. F. Kurtzke, M. Alter, G. A. Schumacher, M. R. Gilkerson, J. H. Ellenberg and J. A. Brody, VI Int. Congress of Neuropath, Paris, p. 958 (1970)Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    R. Johnson, Proc. VI Intern. Congr. of Neuropath., p. 761 (1970)Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    E. A. Caspary, E. J. Field and E. J. Ball, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 27, 25 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    F. Seitelberger, Nervenarzt., 38, 525 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    H. J. Bauer, Z. Neurol.,198, 5–32 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    H. Debuch, H. Friedemann and J. Müller, Hoppe Seyler Ztsch.,351, 613 (1970)Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    P. Morell and N. S. Radin, Biochem., 8, 506 (1969)Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    P. Morell and N. S. Radin, J. biol. Chem., 245, 342 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    M. L. Das, E. D. Haak and F. L. Crane, Biochem., 4, 859 (1965)Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    B. Gerstl, L. Eng, H. Hunt and C. Uyeda, unpublished dataGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Company Ltd. 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Gerstl

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations