Recurrent Urethritis in the Female

  • William Nisbet Toole


The female urethra is a short tube of relative anatomical simplicity (Fig. 1). Most urological textbooks, and even gynecological textbooks, treat this subject in a cursory manner. A search of the literature of the preantibiotic era produces a reasonable number of articles mainly dealing with that aspect of venereal disease affecting the female urethra. Nowadays, one sees a considerable amount written about pyelonephritis, the misuse of the catheter, and urinary tract bacteriology directed toward treatment with various drugs. There seems to be a lack of attention to anatomical pathology with respect to the epidemiology of urinary tract infections.


Bladder Neck Urethral Diverticulum Inflammatory Polyp Meatal Stenosis Female Urethra 
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  1. 1.
    Huffman, J. W. The detailed anatomy of the paraurethral ducts in the adult human female. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 55: 86–100, 1648.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Krantz, K. E. The anatomy and physiology of micturition in the human female, read before the American Urological Association, New York, May 31, 1967.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Nisbet Toole
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

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