The formation of an adherent continuum from a polymer colloid leads inevitably to residual stresses in the dried film. Dimensional changes are bound to occur, either by evaporation, by bond formation, or by coalescence of discrete particles. All of these mechanisms require a reduction in the volume of the film, and when the film is constrained by a rigid substrate the volume change is manifested as a shrinkage in the vertical direction only. These dimensional changes must be accompanied either by flow of the polymeric material or by deformation. The terminal stage in the drying of a film is not conducive to flow, or else the film would not possess protective values, and as a consequence the buildup of some residual stress appears inevitable.
KeywordsResidual Stress Phase Angle Film Formation Adhesive Failure Cyclic Shear
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