X-Ray Emissions from the Sun

  • S. M. Krimigis


Since the existence of solar x-rays was inferred from the work of Grotrian [1939] and Edlen [1942], there have been in recent years several reviews of the experimental and theoretical work on the subject, including those of Mandelstam [1952, 1965], Friedman [1963], de Jager [1964], and most recently Underwood [1968]. Many of these reviews contain excellent discussions of both the experimental observations and the physical processes responsible for solar x-ray production, and some include descriptions of experimental techniques. It is only recently, however, that Observational knowledge of solar x-rays has vastly increased with the massive set of observations obtained with the OSO satellite series, and the long term measurements obtained by Explorers 33 and 35, and Mariner 5 spacecraft.


Solar Flare Radio Flux Dielectronic Recombination Plage Region JUNE JUlY August SEPTEMBER 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, C. W., The interpretation of the XUV Solar Spectrum, Space Sci. Rev., 4, 91, 1965.Google Scholar
  2. Anastassiadis, M. and D. S. Boviatsos, Distribution of x-ray emission from the sun deduced from measurements of iono-spheric absorption, Nature, 219, 1139–1141, 1968.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beygman, I. L. and L. A. Vaynshteyn, X-ray emission from the solar corona, Akademiya Nauk USSR, Fizicheskiy Institut ImemGoogle Scholar
  4. P. N. Iebedev Preprint No. 104, Moscow, 1967.Google Scholar
  5. Boyd, R. L. F., Techniques for the measurement of extra-terrestrial soft x-radiation, Space Science Reviews, 4, 35, 1965.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Burgess,A.,Dielectronic recoMbination and the temperature of the corona, Astrophys. J., D. 2, 776, 1964.Google Scholar
  7. Solar R., Soft x-radiation in the upper atmosphere, Phys. 76Google Scholar
  8. Chubb, T. A., R. W. Kreplin, and H. Friedman, Observations of hard x-ray emission from solar flares, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 165, 1949.Google Scholar
  9. Cline, T. L., S. S. Holt, and E. W. Hones, Jr., High energy x-rays from the solar flare of July 7, 1966, J. Geophys. Res., 12, 434, 1968.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Culhane, J. L., A. P. Willmore, K. A. Pounds and P. W. Sanford, Variability of the Solar x-ray spectrum below 15 Space Research IV, 741, 1964.Google Scholar
  11. de Jager, C., Solar ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, Research in Geophysics, IL edited by H. Odishaw, p. 1, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, 1964.Google Scholar
  12. de Jager, C., Solar x-radiation, Ann. Astrophys., 28, 125, 1965. Edlen, B., Z. Astrophys., 22, 30, 1942.Google Scholar
  13. Elwert, G., Uber die ionisations und rekoMbinationsprzesse in einem plasma und die ionisationsformel der sonnenkorona, Z. Naturforschg., 7a, 432, 1952.ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Elwert, G., Theory of X-ray emission from the sun, J. Geophys. Res., 66, 391, 1961ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Friedman, H., S. W. Lichtman, and E. T. Byram, Photon counter measurements of solar x-rays and extreme ultraviolet light, Phys. Rev., 8.1, 1025, 1951.Google Scholar
  16. Friedman, H., Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1, (ed. by Leo Goldberg ), Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, 1963.Google Scholar
  17. Friedman, H., Ionospheric constitution and solar control, Research in Geophysics, I, 157, (ed. by H. Odishaw), M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, 19 .Google Scholar
  18. Fritz, T. A., High latitude outer-zone boundary region for Z 40-kev electrons during geomagnetically quiet periods,J. Geophys. Res.,, 7245, 1968.Google Scholar
  19. Grotrian, W., Naturwissenschaften, 27, 214, 1939.ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Holt, S. S. and R. Ramaty, Microwave and hard x-ray bursts from solar flares, Solar Physics, VIII, 119, 1969.Google Scholar
  21. Hudson, H. S., L. E. Peterson, and D. A. Schwartz, The hard solarGoogle Scholar
  22. x-ray spectrum observed from the third orbiting solar observatory, Astrophys. J., 157, 389, 1969.Google Scholar
  23. Karzas, W. J. and R. Latter, Electron radiative transition in a coulomb field, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement series, VI, 55, p. 167, 1961.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kreplin, R. W., T. A. Chubb, and H. Friedman, X-ray and Lyman-alpha emission from the sun as measured from the NRL SR-1 satellite, J. Geophys. Res., lip 2231, 1962.Google Scholar
  25. Kundu, M. R., Solar Radio Astronomy, University of Michigan Radio Observatory Report No. 64–4, Ann Arbor, 1964.Google Scholar
  26. Mandelstam, S. L., Usp. Fiz. Nauk., 46, 145, 1952.Google Scholar
  27. Mandelstam, S. L., X-ray emission of the sun, Space Sci. Rev., 4,587, 1965.Google Scholar
  28. Meekins, J. F., R. W. Kreplin, T. A. Chubb, and H. Friedman, X-ray line and continuum spectra of solar flares from 0.5 to 8.5 angstroms, Science, 162, 891, 1968.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Neupert, W. M., W. Gates, M. Swartz, and R. Young, Observation of the solar flare x-ray emission line spectrum of iron from 1.3 to 20 A, Astrophys. J.,Q, 179, 1967.Google Scholar
  30. Potemra, T. A.. and A,. J. Zmuda, T.e effect of dunped particles on the nighttime D-region, paper presented at the Spring Meet-ing of URSI, Washington, D. C., 21–24 April 1969.Google Scholar
  31. Reidy, W. P., G. S. Vaiana, T. Zehnpfennig, and R. Giacconi, Study of x-ray images of the sun at solar minimum, Astrophys. J., 121, 333, 1968.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Seaton, PL J., The spectrum of the solar corona, Planet. Space Sci., 12, 55, 1964.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Underwood, J. H., Solar x-rays, Science, 122, 383, 1968.Google Scholar
  34. Vaiana, G. S., W. P. Reidy, T. Zehnpfennig, L. Van Speybroeck, and R. Giacconi, X-ray structure of the sun during the important 1N flare of 8 June 1968, Science, 161, 564, 1968.Google Scholar
  35. Van Allen, J. A., The solar x-ray flare of July 7, 1966, J. Geophys. Res., 22, 5903, 1967.Google Scholar
  36. Van Allen, J. A. and S. M. Krimigis, Impulsive emission of — 40Google Scholar
  37. kev electrons from the sun, J. Geophys. Res., 12, 5735, 1965.Google Scholar
  38. Van Allen, J. A. and C. D. Wende, The solar flare of 8 july 1968, J. Geophys. Res., 111, 3046, 1969.ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Walker, A. B. C. and H. Rugge, Space Research, 9, 1969 (to be published).Google Scholar
  40. Wende, C. D., The correlation of solar microwave and soft x-ray radiation, 1. The solar cycle and slowly varying components, J. Geophys. Res., 74, 4649, 1969a.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wende, C. D., The correlation of solar microwave and soft x-ray radiation, 2. The burst component, J. Geophys. Res., 74, 64715, 1969b.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Krimigis
    • 1
  1. 1.The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics LaboratoryC. D. Wende, National Space Science Data CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations