Structural, Hydraulic, and “Economic” Aspects of Leaf Venation and Shape

  • Howard C. Howland


I would like to begin by outlining the relationships between the methods of this investigation and the central bionic hypothesis.


Temperate Forest Leaf Shape Tropical Rain Forest Secondary Vein Branch Vessel 
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  1. Arnold, C.A. 1947. An introduction to paleobotany. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Howland, W. E. 1958. Economic pipe routes and other straight line structures. Industrial Wastes. Mar.-Apr.Google Scholar
  3. Richards, P. W. 1952. The tropical rain forest, an ecological study. Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  4. Thompson, D.W. 1952. Growth and form. Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, Inc. 1962

Authors and Affiliations

  • Howard C. Howland
    • 1
  1. 1.State University of New YorkOyster Bay, Long IslandUSA

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