When studying the behaviour of control systems one must consider their motion or variability — the changes in their state. However, there can be no change in the state of any system without conversion and transfer of energy and matter between its component elements. Thus, a change in the temperature of a body entails changes in its internal energy; to change the level in a reservoir it is necessary to change the quantity of liquid contained therein. If an animal wishes to change its position in space during a finite period of time it must move, which in turn requires the accumulation of a reserve of kinetic energy.
KeywordsPhase Space Phase Portrait Transient Process Phase Trajectory Unstable Equilibrium
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