Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectrophotometry
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Luminescence is the emission of photons from electronically excited states. Fluorescence and phosphorescence are two types of luminescence which differ in the nature of the ground and excited states. A molecule may be excited from a singlet ground state to a singlet excited state by the absorption of radiation in the UV or visible region of the spectrum. Electronic excitation is accompanied by excitation to a higher vibrational energy level. The excited molecules may rapidly lose vibrational energy by collisions with neighbouring molecules. Fluorescence is the emission of light at a longer wavelength than the incident radiation as the molecule returns from a singlet excited state to a singlet ground state after the loss of vibrational energy (Figure 7.1). Phosphorescence is the emission of light at a longer wavelength than the incident radiation as a molecule returns from an excited electronic state to a ground electronic state of different spin multiplicity, generally a triplet excited state returning to a singlet ground state.
KeywordsExcited State Instrumental Analysis Static Quenching Singlet Excited State Fluorescent Molecule
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