# Review of Semiconductor Physics

Chapter

## Abstract

The aim of this chapter is a brief discussion of some topics in semiconductor physics that will be useful in our discussion of applications. Since it is assumed that the reader has had an introductory course in solid state physics at the level of the book by Kittel,^{(1)} some of the chapter will be review material. However, since some of the topics may be new to some readers, references to more complete and/or advanced treatments are given.

## Keywords

Conduction Band Valence Band Fermi Level Carrier Lifetime Valence Band Maximum
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## References and Comments

- C. Kittel,
*Introduction to Solid State Physics*, Sixth Edition, John Wiley, New York (1986).Google Scholar - 2.C. Kittel, Reference 1, pages 176–178.Google Scholar
- 3.See, for example, L. Pincherle,
*Electron Energy Bands in Solids*, Macdonald, London (1971), Section 6. 3, page 172.Google Scholar - 4.M. Tinkham,
*Group Theory and Quantum Mechanics*, McGraw-Hill, New York (1964), Section 8. 3, page 277.Google Scholar - 5.Adapted from D. Long,
*Energy Bands in Semiconductors*,John Wiley, New York (1968), Figure 2.7(a), page 39.Google Scholar - 6.Adapted from J. R. Chelikowsky and M. L. Cohen,
*Physical Review B*,*10*,5095 (1974), Figure 2 (using the nonlocal pseudopotential calculation).Google Scholar - 7.Adapted from D. Long, Reference 5, Figure 6. 1, page 101.Google Scholar
- 8.C. Kittel, Reference 1, pages 214–217.Google Scholar
- 9.C. Kittel,
*Introduction to Solid State Physics*, Fourth Edition, John Wiley, New York (1971), page 328.Google Scholar - 10.A. J. Dekker,
*Solid State Physics*,Prentice-Hall, New York (1957), Section 10.4, gives a brief discussion of electron motion at higher energies in the bands.Google Scholar - 11.J. S. Blakemore, “Semiconducting and Other Major Properties of GaAs”, in
*Gallium Arsenide*(J. S. Blakemore, editor), American Institute of Physics, New York (1987), Table XII, page 39 and Figure 45, page 34.Google Scholar - 11a.See, for example, M. L. Cohen and J. R. Chelikowsky,
*Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Semiconductors*, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1988), Table 5. 2, page 49.Google Scholar - 12.C. Kittel, Reference 1, page 142.Google Scholar
- 13.See, for example, A. J. Dekker, Reference 10, pages 329–331.Google Scholar
- 14.See, for example, C. Kittel,
*Quantum Theory of Solids*, John Wiley, New York (1963), page 187.Google Scholar - 15.C. Kittel, Reference 1, Chapter 8, Tables 1 and 3, pages 185 and 205, give values of energy gaps and carrier mobilities for a number of semiconductors.Google Scholar
- 16.C. Kittel, Reference 1, pages 200–204.Google Scholar
- 16a.C. Kittel and H. Kroemer,
*Thermal Physics*, Second Edition, John Wiley, New York (1980), pages 154–156.Google Scholar - 17.See, for example, R. A. Smith,
*Semiconductors*, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press (1978), pages 81–82.Google Scholar - 18.C. Kittel, Reference 1, pages 206–211.Google Scholar
- 19.R. A. Smith, Reference 17, Section 4. 3, pages 86–96.Google Scholar
- 20.A. S. Grove,
*Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices*, John Wiley, New York (1967), Section 4.4, pages 100–106, especially Figure 4. 7, page 104.Google Scholar - 21.S. Wang,
*Solid State Electronics*, McGraw-Hill, New York (1966), Section 3. 5, pages 146–152.Google Scholar - 22.S. M. Sze,
*Physics of Semiconductor Devices*, Second Edition, John Wiley, New York (1981), pages 22–27.Google Scholar - 23.A. J. Dekker, Reference 10, Section 12. 4, pages 310–314.Google Scholar
- 24.J. S. Blakemore,
*Semiconductor Statistics*, Pergamon Press, New York (1962), Section 3. 5, pages 166–169.Google Scholar - 25.N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin,
*Solid State Physics*, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York (1976), page 584.Google Scholar - 26.H. M. Rosenberg,
*Low Temperature Solid State Physics*, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1963), pages 237–240.Google Scholar - 27.See, for example, C. Kittel and H. Kroemer, Reference 16a, Chapters 6 and 7.Google Scholar
- 28.S. Wang, Reference 21, page 149, equation (3.57).Google Scholar
- 29.See, for example, W. R. Beam,
*Electronics of Solids*, McGraw-Hill, New York (1965), Section 4. 6, pages 190–200.Google Scholar - 30.S. Wang, Reference 21, Section 5. 5, pages 275–282.Google Scholar
- 31.N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Reference 25, page 604.Google Scholar
- 32.W. R. Beam, Reference 29, page 165.Google Scholar
- 33.A. S. Grove, Reference 20, page 142.Google Scholar
- 34.H. J. Hovel,
*Semiconductors and Semimetals*,R. K. Willardson and A. C. Beer (editors), Academic Press, New York (1975), Volume 11, pages 11, 12, and 14.Google Scholar

## Suggested Reading

- C. Kittel,
*Introduction to Solid State Physics*,Sixth Edition, John Wiley, New York (1986). This modern classic is our basic background reference on solid state physics. Chapter 8 provides an introduction to semiconductor physics and also contains tables of values of semiconductor parameters. (Chapter 1 includes tables of values of crystallographic quantities.) Earlier editions of this book will sometimes be referred to.Google Scholar - A. J. Dekker,
*Solid State Physics*,Prentice-Hall, New York (1957). This text is now somewhat out of date but is clearly written. It also contains some interesting material not readily found elsewhere at the introductory level. Chapters 12 and 13 discuss semiconductors.Google Scholar - R. A. Smith,
*Semiconductors*, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press (1978). This book provides detailed discussions of many topics (especially transport properties) in semiconductor physics.Google Scholar - D. Long,
*Energy Bands in Semiconductors*, John Wiley, New York (1968). This short book provides, among other things, a compendium of band structures and other data on semiconductors. Even though more than twenty years old, it is still quite useful.Google Scholar - B. G. Streetman,
*Solid State Electronic Devices*,Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, New York (1980). Chapter 3 of this fine textbook provides an introduction to semiconductor physics, written with applications in mind.Google Scholar - N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin,
*Solid State Physics*,Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York (1976). Chapter 28 of this advanced-level textbook discusses the physics of semiconductors.Google Scholar - T. S. Moss (series editor),
*Handbook on Semiconductors*, North-Holland (1981). This four-volume treatise contains review articles, written by different experts, on just about every aspect of semiconductor physics, including devices. The treatments are advanced and authoritative.Google Scholar - P. N. Butcher, N. H. March, and M. P. Tost (editors),
*Crystalline Semiconducting Materials and Devices*, Plenum Press, New York (1986). A shorter and more recent treatise than the series edited by Moss, this single volume is a group of rather theoretically oriented review articles. While these papers discuss a number of subjects of interest for applications, the presentations are definitely not of an introductory nature.Google Scholar - J. S. Blakemore, editor,
*Gallium Arsenide*, American Institute of Physics (1987); W. T. Lindley, editor,*Gallium Arsenide and Related Compounds*, 1986, Institute of Physics (1986). These collections of review and research papers discuss GaAs, which is of increasing importance for semiconductor devices.Google Scholar - M. L. Cohen and J. R. Chelikowsky,
*Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Semiconductors*, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1988). This monograph includes band structures, optical properties, and charge densities of semiconductors and an extensive list of references.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - C. M. Wolfe, N. Holonyak, and G. E. Stillman,
*Physical Properties of Semiconductors*, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1989). This recent text at the graduate level presupposes a knowledte of semiconductors equivalent to the treatment in Streetman’s book listed above. The discussion covers the basic topics in semiconductor physics, and also includes chapters on surfaces and on heterostructures.Google Scholar

## Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990