Advertisement

Anatomy of the Mammalian Cochlear Nuclei; a Review

Chapter

Abstract

Nearly half a century after his first publications on the anatomy of the eighth nerve, Lorente de No (1981) portrayed “the primary acoustic nuclei” as “a miniature brain that has a cerebellum of its own, the tuberculum acousticum”. Here, selected aspects of this “brain” are discussed on the basis of recent literature. Included are also some preliminary immunocytochemical data from our institute (Osen et al., 1987), obtained by postembedding staining of 0.5 Aim resin sections of glutaraldehydefixed tissue, using locally produced antisera against conjugated glycine and GABA (Storm-Mathisen et al., 1983; Somogyi et al., 1984; Ottersen and Storm-Mathisen, 1984; Ottersen et al., 1987). As specificity tests are used preabsorption with amino acid glutaraldehyde complexes and coincubation with test sections containing six spatially separate amino acid conjugates (Ottersen, 1987).

Keywords

Inferior Colliculus Cochlear Nucleus Golgi Cell Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus Ventral Cochlear Nucleus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, J. C., 1979, Ascending projections to the inferior colliculus, J. Comp. Neurol., 183: 519–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, J. C., 1983, Multipolar cells in the ventral cochlear nucleus project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus, Neurosci. Lett., 37:205–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnesen, A. R. and Osen, K. K., 1978, The cochlear nerve in the cat: topography, cochleotopy, and fiber spectrum, J. Comp. Neurol., 178: 661–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blackstad, T. W., Osen, K. K. and Mugnaini, E., 1984, Pyramidal neurones of the dorsal cochlear nucleus: a Golgi and computer reconstruction study in cat, Neuroscience, 13:827–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bourk, T. R., Mielcarz, J. P. and Norris, B. E., 1981, Tonotopic organization of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat, Hearing Res., 4:215–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brawer, J. R., Morest, D. K. and Kane, E. C., 1974, The neuronal architecture of the cochlear nucleus of the cat, J. Comp. Neurol., 155: 251–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, M. C., 1987, Morphology of labeled afferent fibers in the guinea pig cochlea, J. Comp. Neurol., 260:591–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cant, N. B. and Casseday, J. H., 1986, Projections from the anteroventral cochlear nucleus to the lateral and medial superior olivary nuclei, J. Comp. Neuro1., 247:457–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cant, N. B. and Gaston, K. C., 1982, Pathways connecting the right and left cochlear nuclei, J. Comp. Neurol., 212:313–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cant, N. B. and Morest, D. K., 1978, Axons from non-cochlear sources in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat. A study with the rapid Golgi method, Neuroscience, 3:1003–1029.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cant, N. B. and Morest, D. K., 1979, Organization of the neurons in the anterior division of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat. Light-microscopic observations, Neuroscience, 4:1909–1923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Caspary, D. M., Rybak, L. P. and Faingold, C. L., 1985, The effects of inhibitory and excitatory amino-acid neurotransmitters on the response properties of brainstem auditory neurons, in: “Auditory biochemistry”, D. G. Drescher, ed., Charles C. Thomas Publ., Springfield Ill.Google Scholar
  13. Faye-Lund, H. and Osen, K. K., 1985, Anatomy of the inferior colliculus in rat, Anat. Embryo1., 171:1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hackney, C. M. and Pick, G. F., 1986, The distribution of spherical cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the guinea pig. Brit. J. Audiol., 20:215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harrison, J. M. and Feldman, M. L., 1970, Anatomical aspects of the cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex, in: “Contributions to sensory physiology”, W. D. Neff, ed., Academic Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  16. Harrison, J. M. and Irving, R., 1964, Nucleus of the trapezoid body: dual afferent innervation, Science, 143:473–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harrison, J. M. and Irving, R., 1965, The anterior ventral cochlear nucleus, J. Comp. Neurol., 124:15–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harrison, J. M. and Irving, R., 1966, The organization of the posterior ventral cochlear nucleus in the rat, J. Comp. Neurol., 126:391–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Itoh, K., Nomura, S., Konishi, A., Yasui, Y., Sugimoto, T. and Muzino, N., 1986, A morphological evidence of direct connections from the cochlear nuclei to tensor tympani motoneurons in the cat: a possible afferent limb of the acoustic middle ear reflex pathways, Brain. Res., 375:214–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Itoh, K., Kamiya, H., Mitani, A., Yasui, Y., Takada, M. and Mizuno, N., 1987, Direct projections from the dorsal column nuclei and the spinal trigeminal nuclei to the cochlear nuclei in the cat, Brain Res., 400:145–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liberman, M. C. and Simmons, D. D., 1985, Applications of neuronal labeling techniques to the study of the peripheral auditory system, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 78:312–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lorente de Nó, R., 1933, Anatomy of the eighth nerve. III. General plan of structure of the primary cochlear nuclei, Laryngoscope, 43:327–350.Google Scholar
  23. Lorente de Nó, R., 1981, “The primary acoustic nuclei”, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Moore, J. K., 1980, The primate cochlear nuclei: loss of lamination as a phylogenetic process, J. Comp. Neurol., 193:609–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mugnaini, E., 1985, GABA neurons in the superficial layers of the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus: light and electron microscopic immunocy- tochemistry, J. Comp. Neurol., 235:61–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mugnaini, E., Osen, K. K., Dahl, A.-L., Friedrich, V. L., jr., and Korte, G., 1980, Fine structure of granule cells and related interneurons (termed Golgi cells) in the cochlear nuclear complex of cat, rat and mouse, J. Neurocytol., 9:537–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Osen, K. K., 1969a, Cytoarchitecture of the cochlear nuclei in the cat, J. Comp. Neurol., 136:453–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Osen, K. K., 1969b, The intrinsic organization of the cochlear nuclei in the cat, Acta Otolaryngol., 67:352–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Osen, K. K., 1970, Course and termination of the primary afferents in the cochlear nuclei of the cat. An experimental anatomical study, Arch. Ital. Biol., 108:21–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Osen, K. K., 1983, Orientation of dendritic arbors studied in Golgi sections of the cat dorsal cochlear nucleus, in: “Mechanisms of hearing”, W. R. Webster and L. M. Aitkin, eds., Monash University Press, Clayton.Google Scholar
  31. Osen, K. K., Ottersen, O. P. and Storm-Mathisen, J., 1987, Glycine-like immunoreactivity in the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), Neuroscience, Suppl. 22:S788.Google Scholar
  32. Ottersen, O. P., 1987, Postembedding light- and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of amino acids: description of a new model system allowing identical conditions for specificity testing and tissue processing, Exp. Brain Res., (in press).Google Scholar
  33. Ottersen, O. P., Davanger, S. and Storm-Mathisen, J., 1987, Glycine-like immunoreactivity in the cerebellum of rat and Senegalese baboon, Papio papio: a compari3son with the distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity and with H glycine and H GABA uptake, Exp. Brain Res., 66:211–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ottersen, O. P. and Storm-Mathisen, J., 1984, Glutamate- and GABA- containing neurons in the mouse and rat brain, as demonstrated with a new immunocytochemical technique, J. Comp. Neurol., 229:374–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rouiller, E. M., Cronin-Schreiber, R., Fekete, D. M. and Ryugo, D. K., 1986, The central projections of intracellularly labeled auditory nerve fibers in cats: an analysis of terminal morphology. J. Comp. Neurol., 249:261–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Smith, P. H. and Rhode, W. S., 1985, Electron microscopic features of physiologically characterized, HRP-labeled fusiform cells in the cat dorsal cochlear nucleus, J. Comp. Neurol., 237:127–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Somogyi, P., Hodgson, A. J., Smith, A. D., Nunzi, M. G., Gorio, A. and Wu, J.-Y., 1984, Different populations of GABA ergic neurons in the visual cortex and hippocampus of cat contains somatostatin- or cholecystokinin-immunoreactive material, J. Neurosci., 4:2590–2603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Storm-Mathisen, J., Leknes, A. K., Bore, A. T., Vaaland, J. L., Edminson, P., Haug, F.-M. S. and Ottersen, O. P., 1983, First visualization of glutamate and GABA in neurones by immunocytoche- mistry, Nature, London, 301:517–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wenthold, R. J., 1987, Evidence for a glycinergic pathway connecting the two cochlear nuclei; an immunocytochemical and retrograde transport study, Brain Res., 415:183–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wouterlood, F. G., and Mugnaini, E., 1984, Cartwheel neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus: A Golgi-electron microscopic study in rat, J. Comp. Neurol., 227:136–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wouterlood, F. G., Mugnaini, E., Osen, K. K. and Dahl, A.-L., 1984, Stellate neurons in rat dorsal cochlear nucleus studied with combined Golgi impregnation and electron microscopy: synaptic connections and mutual coupling by gap junctions, J. Neurocytol., 13: 639–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anatomical InstituteUniversity of OsloOslo 1Norway

Personalised recommendations