Role of Plasma Membrane Fluidity in the Regulation of Cellular Activities

  • Giovanna Curatola
  • Giorgio Lenaz
Part of the Nato ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 132)


The plasma membrane, located at the interface between external environment and the cell metabolic machinery, is the site of regulatory events which control functional activities and cellular processes. The involvement of the plasma membrane in cell growth, division and differentation is well demonstrated in many different cell types, but a detailed description at the molecular level as well as a unified framework is lacking at present. In general it would be necessary to clearly distinguish between plasma membrane properties which primarily influence the progression of the cell cycle and the changes produced at the membrane level as a passive consequence of morphologic and metabolic adaptation throughout the different phases of the cell cycle.


Adenylate Cyclase Membrane Fluidity Lateral Diffusion Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching Rotational Diffusion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fourcans B., Jain M.K. Advanc. Lipid Res. 12:147 (1974)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    McElhaney R.N. Curr. Topics Memb. Transp. 17:317 (1982)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lenaz G. Subcell. Biochem. 6:233 (1979)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wrigglesworth J.M. in “Structure and properties of cell membranes” vol.1 GH Benga ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, pag.137, (1985)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ledue M., Schaechter M. J. Bacterid. 133:1038 (1978)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Joseleau-petit D., Kepes F., Kepes A. Eur. J. Biochem. 139:605 (1984)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mozharov A.D., Shchipakin V.N., Fishov I.L., Evtodienko Y.V., FEBS Lett. 186:103 (1985)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cottrell S.F., Getz G.S., Rabinowitz M., J. Biol. Chem. 256:10973 (1981)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Daniels M.J., Biochem. J. 115:697Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pasternak C.A. in “The cell surface and the cell cycle” vol.IV CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, pag.lGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Laat S.W., Bluemink J.G., Boonstra J., Mummery C.L., Van der Saag P.T., Van Zoelen E.J.J., in “Physiology of membrane fluidity” vol.11 M. Shinitzky ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, pag 21 (1984)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Henry S.M., Hodge L.D., J. Cell Biol. 97:166 (1983)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van den Bosch H., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 604:191 (1980)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Horwitz A.F.A., Wight P., Ludwig P., Cornell R., J. Cell. Biol. 77:334 (1978)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cornell R.B., Horwitz A.F., J. Cell. Biol. 86:810 (1980)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jost P.C., Capaldi R.A., Vanderkooi G., Griffith O.H., J. Supramol. Struct. 1:269 (1973)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Laat S.W., Tertoolen L.G.J., Van der Saag P.T., Bluemink J.G., J. Cell. Biol. 96:1047 (1983)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bluemink J.G., De Laat S.W. Cell. Surf. Rev. 4:403 (1977)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    De Laat S.W., Van der Saag P.T., Int. Rev. Cytol. 74:1 (1982)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Preston S.F., Regula C.S., Sager P.R., Pearson C.B., Daniels L.S., Brown P.A., Berlin R.D., J. Cell. Biol. 101:1086 (1985)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bruscalupi G., Curatola G., Lenaz G., Leoni S., Mangiantini M.T., Mazzanti L., Spagnuolo S., Trentalance A., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 597:263 (1980)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bruscalupi G., Curatola G., Leoni S., Mangiantini M.T., Spagnuolo S., Trentalance A., Zolese G., Ital. J. Biochem. 32:391 (1983)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jaiswal R.K., Rama Sastry B.V., Landon E.J., Pharmacology 24:355 (1982)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tanford C. in “The hydrophobic effect: formation of micellse and biological membranes”. John Wiley, New York (1973)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nagle J.F., J. Chem. Phys. 58:252 (1973)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marcelja S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 367:165 (1974)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee A.G. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 472:285 (1977)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vaz N.A.P. and Doane J.W. Phys. Rev. A. in the pressGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pullman B., Berthod H. and Gresh N., FEBS Lett. 53:199 (1975)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Browning J.L., Seelig J., Biochemistry 19:1262 (1980)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Eisenberg M., Gresalfi T., Riccio T., McLaughlin S. Biochemistry N.Y. 18:5213 (1979)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mabrey-Gaud S. in: “Liposomes: from physical structure to therapeutic applications” C.C. Knight ed., Elsevier Amsterdam, p. 105 (1981)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jahning F., Harlos K., Vogel H., Eibl H., Biochemistry 18:1459 (1979)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Israelachvili J.N., Marcelja S., Horn R.G., Quart. Rev. Biophys. 13:121 (1980)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mitchell D.J., Ninham B.W. (1981) Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 77, 601Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Evans E.A., Hochmuth R.M., in “Current topics in membrane and transport” vol. X, Kleinzeller A. and Bronner F. eds., Academic Press, New York, pag. 1 (1978)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mitchell D.J., Ninham B.W. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II (in the press)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Evans E.A., Skalak R., CRC Critical Revs. Bioeng. 3:181 (1979)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sackmann E. in “Biological Membranes” vol. 5, Academic Press, London p.105 (1984)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Helfrich W., E. Naturforsch 28:693 (1973)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Petrov A.G., and Pavloff Y.V., J. Physique 40:455 (1979)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tanford C., J. Phys. Chem. 76:3020 (1972)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Israelacvili J.N., Mitchell D.J., Ninham B.W., J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 72:1525 (1976)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Verkeley A.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 779:43 (1984)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cullis P.R., De Kruijff B., Hope M.J., Verkleij A.J., Nayar R., Farren S.B., Tilcock C., Madden T.D., Bally M.B. in “Membrane fluidity in Biology” vol. 1 Academic Press, New York p.39 (1983)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rilfors L., Lindblom G., Wieslander A., Christiansson A. in “Biomembranes” vol. 12, Plenum Press, New York, p.205 (1983)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stier A., Finch S.A.E., Bosterling B., FEBS Lett. 91:109 (1978)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kuypers F.A., Roelofsen B., Berendsen W., Op Den Kamp J.A.F., Van Deenen L.L.M., J. Cell. Biol. 99:2260 (1984)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shertz M.P., Singer S.J., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71:4457 (1974)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Christiansson A., Kuypers F.A., Roelofsen B., Op Den Kamp J.A.F., Van Deenen L.L.M., J. Cell. Biol. 101:1455 (1985)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Op den Kamp J.A.F., Roelofsen B., Van Deenen L.L.M. TIBS, 320 (1985)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Singer S.J. and Nicolson G.L., Science 175:720 (1972)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    : Jain- M.K., White III H.B. Adv. Lipid. Res. 15:1 (1977)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Galla H.J., Hartmann W., Theilen U., Sackmann E. J. Membrane Biology 48:215 (1979)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marsh D., Watts A., Knowles P.F. Biochemistry 15:3570 (1976)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nagle J.F., Scott H.L., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 513:236 (1978)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kinosity K, Tsong T.Y., Nature 272:258 (1978)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Petrov A.G., Mitov M.D., Deuzhaniski A. in “Advances in liquid crystal research and application” Bata L. ed., Pergamon Press, Budapest, pag. 695 (1980)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sackmann E. in “Biological Membranes” vol. 5, Academic Press, London, pag. 105 (1984)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Klausner R.D., Kleinfeld A.M. in “Cell surface dynamics”, Perelson A.S., Delisi C., Wiegel F.W. eds. Marcel Dekker, New York, 23 (1984)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Curatola G., Bertoli E. in “Biomembrane and receptor mechanisms” E. Bertoli and D. Chapman eds., Liviana Springer Verlag-Press, in pressGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Boggs J.M., Wood D.D., Moscarello M.A., Papahadjopoulos D., Biochemistry 16:2325 (1977)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lenaz G., Mascarello S., Landi L., Cabrini L. Pasquali P., Parenti-Castelli G., Sechi A.M., Bertoli E. in “Membrane Bioenergetics” L. Packer ed., Elsevier Amsterdam, pag. 189 (1977)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jost P.C., Griffith O.H., Capaldi R.A., Vanderkooi G., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 311:141 (1973)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chapman D., Gomez-Fernandez J.C., Goni F.M., FEBS Lett. 98:211 (1979)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Yellin N., Levin I.W., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 468:490 (1977)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Freire E., Snyder B., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 600:643 (1980)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Parasassi T., Conti F., Glaser M., Gratton E., J. Biol. Chem. 259:14011 (1984)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gratton E., Fiorini R.M., Valentino M., Wang P., Biochem. J. in pressGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Curatola G., Fiorini R.M., Gratton E., Biochim. Biophys. Acta submittedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schiffmann Y., Prog. Biophys. Molec. Biol. 36:87 (1980)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Peracchia C., Dulhunty A.F., J. Cell. Biol. 70:419 (1976)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Loor F. in “Cytoskeletal elements and plasma membrane organization” C. Poste and G.L. Nicolson eds., Elsevier, North Holland, pp. 253 (1981)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    seelig J., Browning J.L., FEBS Lett. 92:41Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lenaz G. in “Biomembrane” Burton R.M., Guerra F.C. eds. Plenum Press, N.Y. pag. Ili (1984)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Van der Meer W. in “Physiology of membrane fluidity” vol. 1, M. Shinitzky ed., CRC Press, pag.53 (1984)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Stubbs C.D., Essay in Biochem. 19:1 (1983)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Shinitzki M., Yuli I., Chem. Phys. Lipids 30:261 (1982)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cherry R.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 559:289 (1979)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Saffman P.G., Delbrück M., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72:3111 (1975)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cohen M.H., Turnbull D., J. Chem. Phys. 31:1164 (1959)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Montroll E.W., J. Math. Phys. 10:753 (1969)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Vaz W.L.C., Goodsaid-Zalbuonds F., Jacobson K. FEBS Lett. 174:122 (1984)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Berg H.C. in “Random walks in biology” Princeton University Press (1983)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Freye L.D., Edidin M., J. Cell. Sci. 7:319 (1970)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Poo M. and Cone R.A. Nature 247:438 (1974)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Peters R. in “Structure and properties of cell membranes” vol. 1, Benga G.H. ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, pp. 35 (1985)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wade C.G. in “Structure and properties of cell membranes” vol. 1, Benga G.H. ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, pp. 51 (1985)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Aizenbud B.M., Gerston N.D. Biophys. J. 38:287 (1982)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mc Closkly M., Poo M.M., Int. Rev. Cytol. 87:19Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Jain M.K. in “Membrane fluidity in biology”, Aloia R.C. ed. Academic Press, New York pp. 1, (1983)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kawato S., Kinosita K., Biophys. J. 36:277 (1981)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Peters R., Cherry R.T., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:4317 (1982)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Poo M., Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioenerg. 10:245 (1981)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Sowers A.E., Hackenbrock C.R., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:6246 (1981)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Marsh D., Watts A. in “Liposomes: from physical structure to therapeutic applications” Knight C.G. ed.) Elsevier, Amsterdam pp.139 (1981)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Cornell B.A., Poge S.M., Chem. Phys. Lipids- 27:151 (1980)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lakpwicz J.H., Hogen D., Chem. Phys. Lipids 26:1 (1980)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Razi-Nagvi K., Behr J.P., Chapman D., Chem. Phys. Lett. 26:440 (1974)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kell D.B., Harris C.M., J. Biophys, 12:181 (1985/Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Einstein A., Ann. Physik. 19:286 (1906)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Small R.K., Blank M., Ghez R., Pfenninger R.H., J. Cell. Biol. 98:1434 (1984)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hyde J.S., Dalton L.R. in “Spin labelling II: theory and applications” Berliner L., ed. Academic Press, New York, p.l (1979)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Cone R.A. Nature New Biol. 236:39 (1972)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Daemen F.J.M., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 300:255 (1973)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Razi-Nagvi K., Gonzales-Rodriguez J., CHerry R.J., Chapman D., Nature New Biol. 245:249 (1973)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Vaz W.L.C., Hallmann D., FEBS Lett. 152:287 (1983)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Muller H.J., Galla H.J., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 733:291 (1983)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mc Gown S.T., Evans E., Diehl S., Wiles H.C., Biochemistry 20:3134 (1981)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rimon G., Meyerstein N., Henis Y.I. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 775:283 (1984)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lubin B., Chin D., Bastacky J., Roelofsen B., J. Clin. Invest. 67:1643 (1981)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lenaz G., Fato R., J. Bioenerg. Biomemb. 18:365 (1986)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Nicolson G.L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 457:97 (1976)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Vaz W.L.C., Kaptza H.E., Stumpel J., Sackmann E., Jovin T.M., Biochemistry 20:1392 (1981)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kleinfeld A.M., Dragsten P., Klausner R.D., Pjura N.S., Matayoshi E.D., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 649:471 (1981)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hughes B.D., Pailthorpe B.A., White L.R., Sawyer W.H., Biophys. J. 97:673 (1982)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Smith B.A., Clark W.L., Mc Connell H.M., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 76:5641 (1979)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Schinder M., Koppel D.E., Sheetz M.P., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 77:1457 (1980)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Koppel D.E., Sheetz M.P., Schindler M., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 78:3576 (1981)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Golan D.E., Veath W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 77:2537 (1980)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Aszalos A., Yang G.C., Gottesman M.M., J. Cell. Biol. 107:1357 (1985)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Edidin M., in “Membrane and transport” vol. 1, Martonosi A.N. ed. Plenum Press, New York, pp.141 (1982)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Freire E., Snyder B., Biophys. J. 37:627 (1982)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Saxton M., Biophys. J. 39:165 (1982)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Schindler M., Osborn M.J., Koppel D.E., Nature 283:346 (1980)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Onsager L., Physiol. Rev. 37:405 (1931)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Berg H.C., Pureel E.M., Biophys. J. 20:193 (1977)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Adam G., Delbrück M. in “Structural chemistry and molecular biology” Rich A., Davidson N. eds. Freeman, San Francisco p.198 (1968)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Keith A.D., Snipes W., Science 183:666 (1973)Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Keith A.D., Mastro A.M. in “Membrane fluidity in biology” vol.2, Aloia R.C. ed. Academic Press, New York, p.237 (1983)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Small R. and Pfenninger K.H., J. Cell. Biol. 98:1422 (1984)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Axelrod D., J. Memb. Biol. 75:1 (1983)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Cohen M.W., J. Exp. Biol. 8:43 (1980)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Cohen M.W., Weldon P.R., J. Cell. Biol. 86:388 (1980)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Tank D.W., Wu E.S., Webb W.W., J. Cell. Biol. 92:207 (1982)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Goldstein J.L., Anderson R.GW., Brown M.S., Nature 279:679 (1979)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Barak L.S., Webb W.W., Biophys. J. 33:749 (1981)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Goldstein B., Wofsy C., Bell G., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 78:5695 (1981)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Carpentier J.L., Gordon P., Anderson R.G.W., Goldstein J.L., Brown M.S., Cohen S., Drei L., J. Cell. Biol. 95:73 (1982)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Oliver J.M., Berlin R.D., Int. Rev. Cytol. 74:55 (1982)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bretseher M.S., Nature 260:21 (1976)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Wolf D.E., Henkart P., Webb W.W., Biochemistry 19:3893 (1980)Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Evans E.A., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 604:27 (1980)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Berg- O.G., Van Hippel P.H., Annu. Rev. Biophys. Chem. 14:131 (1985)Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Smoluchowski M., Z. Phys. Chem. 92:129 (1985)Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sole K., Stockmayer W.H., J. Chem. Phys. 54:2981 (1971)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Chou K.C., Zhon G.P., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104:1409 (1982)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Welch G.R., Gaertner F.M., Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA 72:4218 (1975)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Mosbach K. FEBS Lett. 62:80 (1976)Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Overfield R.E., Wraight C.A., Biochemistry 19:7328 (1980)Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hardt S.L., Biophys. Chem. 10:239 (1979)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Emeis C.A., Fehder P.L., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 92:2246 (1970)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Torney D.C., Mc Connell H.M., Proc. R. Soc. (London) 387:147 (1983)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kroger A., Klingenberg M., Eur. J. Biochem. 34:358 (1973)Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Fato R., Battino M., Parenti Castelli G., Lenaz G., FEBS Lett. 179:238 (1985)Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Fato R., Battino M., Degli Esposti M., Parenti Castelli G., Lenaz G., Biochemistry 25:3378 (1986)Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Gupte S., Wu E.S., Hoechli L., Hoechli M., Jacobson K., Sowers A.E., Hackenbrock C.R., Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA 81:2606 (1984)Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hackenbrock C.R., Gupte S.S., Chazotte B. in “Achievements and perspectives of mitochondrial research” vol.1, Quagliarello E., Slater E.C., Palmieri F., Saccone C., Kroon A.M. eds., Elsevier Amsterdam p.83 (1985)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Levitzki A., J. Receptor Res. 4:399 (1984)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Orly J., Schramm M., Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA 73:4410 (1976)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Tolkowsky A.M., Levitzky A., Biochemistry 17:3795 (1978)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Arad H., Rosenbusch J.P., Levitzki A., Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA 81:6579 (1984)Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Atlas D., Volsky D.J., Levitzki A., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 597:64 (1980)Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Henski E., Rimon G., Levitzki A. Biochemistry 18:846 (1979)Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Henis Y.I., Rimon G., Felder S., J. Biol. Cell. 257:1407 (1982)Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Bakardjleva A., Peters R., Hekman M., Horning H., Burgmeister W., Helmreich E.J.M. in “Metabolie interconversion of enzymes” Holzer H. ed., Springer Verlag, New York p.378 (1981)Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Henis Y.I., Elson E.L., Proc. Nati. Acad. Sei. USA 78:1072 (1981)Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hirata F., Axelrod J., Nature 275:219 (1980)Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Curatola G., Ferretti G., Zolese G. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. submittedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Insel P.A., Kennedy M.S., Nature 273:471 (1978)Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Rasenick M.M., Stein P.J., Bitensky M.W., Nature 294:560 (1981)Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Sandermann H., FEBS Lett. 21:254 (1980)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Dean W.L., Tanford C. Biochemistry 17:1683 (1978)Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Lenaz G. in “Biomembrane and receptor mechanisms” Chapman D. and Berteli E. eds., Liviana Springer Verlag -press, in pressGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Raison J.K. J. Bioenerg. 4:559 (1972)Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Lenaz G. in “Biomembranes: dynamics and biology” Guerra F.C., Burton R.M. eds. Plenum, N.Y., pp. 1ll (1984)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Dixon M., Webb E.C. Enzymes, Longmans, London (1964)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Massey V., Curti B., Ganther H.A. J. Biol. Cell. 241:2347 (1966)Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Biosea J.A., Travers F., Barman T.G. FEBS Lett. 153:217 (1983)Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Baracca A., Curatola G., Parenti-Castelli G., Solaini G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 136:891 (1986)Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Hidalgo C., Ikemoto N., Gergely J. J. Biol. Cell. 251:4224 (1976)Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Solaini G., aracca A., Parenti-Castelli G., Lenaz G. J. Bioenerg.Biomemb. 16:391 (1984)Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Hackenbrock C.R., Hoechli M., Chan R.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 455:466 (1974)Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Raison J.K., McMurchie E.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 363:135 (1974)Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Lenaz G., Curatola G. Mazzanti L., Zolese G., Ferretti G. Archives 223:369 (1983)Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    McMurchie E.J., Gibson R.A., Albywardena M.Y., Charnock J.S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 727:163 (1983)Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Battino M., Castelluccio C., Pilarska M., Sarzala M.G., Lenaz G. Cell. Biol. Int. Reports 10:154 (1986)Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Bertoli E., Finean J.B., Griffiths D.E. FEBS Lett. 61:163 (1976)Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Heremans K. Ann. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 11:1 (1982)Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Rottem S., Cirillo K.P., De Kruiiff B., Shinitzky M., Rasin S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 323:509 (1973)Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Düppel W., Ulrich W. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 426:399 (1976)Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Lenaz G. in “Biomembrane and Receptor Mechanisms” Chapman D., Bertoli E. ed. Liviana Springer Verlag-press in pressGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Lenaz G., Battino M., Degli Esposti M., Fato R., Parenti-Castelli G. in “Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q” Folkers K., Yanamma Y. eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam pp.73 (1986)Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Beece D., Gisenstein L., Frananfelder H., Good D., Manden M.C., Keinisch L., Reynolds A.H., Porensen L.B., Yue K.T. Biochemistry 19:5147 (1980)Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Swann A.C. Archives 221:148 (1983)Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Cooper A., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 73:2740 (1976)Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Cooper A., Progr. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 44:181 (1984)Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Somogyi B., Welch G.R., Damyanovich S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 766:81 (1984)Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Careri G., Fasella P., Gratton E. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 6:69 (1979)Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Hughes B.O., Pailthorpe B.Ä., White L.R., Sawyer W.H. Biophys. J. 97:673 (1982)Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Seelig J. and Seelig A. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 13:19 (1980)Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kell D.B. in “Collective phenomena in physics of biophysics” Pohl H.A. ed., in press (1986)Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Valentino M., Governa M., Fiorini R.M., Curatola G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. submittedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Coolard J.G., Dewildt A., Comen-Meulemans E.P.M., Smeekens J., Emmelot P., Inbar M. FEBS Lett. 77:173 (1977)Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Toyoshima S., Osawa T. Exp. Cell. Res. 102:438 (1976)Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    De Laat S.W., Bluemink J.G., Boonstra J., Mummery C.L., Van der Saag P.T., Van Zoelen E.J.J, in “Physiology of membrane fluidity” vol. 2, (M. Shinitzky ed.) CRC Press, pag.21–51 (1981)Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    De Laat S.W., Van der Saag P.T., Shinitzky M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:4458 (1977)Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    De Laat S.W., Van der Saag P.T., Elson E.L., Schlessinger J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:1526 (1980)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanna Curatola
    • 1
    • 2
  • Giorgio Lenaz
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Facoltà di MedicinaIstituto di BiochimicaAnconaItaly
  2. 2.Facoltà di ScienzeIstituto ed Orto BotanicoBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations