DSM-III and Behavioral Assessment

  • Rosemery O. Nelson

Abstract

The main focus of this chapter is the relationship between behavioral assessment and the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM-III: American Psychiatric Association, 1980). Introductory topics include the advantages and disadvantages of classification systems in general, and a brief description of DSM-III, along with its strengths and weaknesses. The pros and cons of DSM-III from the vantage of behavioral assessors are emphasized. The utility of the manual in achieving the goals of behavioral assessment is discussed, with the conclusion that it offers useful suggestions to behavioral assessors, but that it cannot replace behavioral assessment. Finally, a particular, proposed contribution of behavioral assessment to DSM-IV is described.

Keywords

Depression Dementia Schizophrenia Expense Paral 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, H. E., & Haber, J. D. (1984). The classification of abnormal behavior: An overview. In H. E. Adams & P. B. Sutker (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychopathology(pp. 3–25). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, H. E., Doster, J. A, & Calhoun, K. S. (1977). A psychologically based system of response classification. In A R. Ciminero, K. S. Calhoun, & H. E. Adams (Eds.), Handbook of behavioral assessment. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (1952). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders(1st ed.). Washington, D. C.: Author.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association (1968). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders(2nd ed.). Washington, D. C.: Author.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders(3rd ed.). Washington, D. C.: Author.Google Scholar
  6. Ayllon, T. (1963). Intensive treatment of psychotic behavior by stimulus satiation and food reinforcement. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1, 53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayllon, T. (1965). Some behavior problems associated with eating in chronic schizophrenic patients. In L. P. Ullmann & L. Krasner (Eds.), Case studies in behavior modification(pp. 73–77). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  8. Baer, D. M. (1982). The imposition of structure on behavior and the demolition of behavioral structures. In D. J. Bernstein (Ed.), Response structure and organization: 1981 Nebraska symposium on motivation(pp. 217–254). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1968). A social learning interpretation of psychological dysfunctions. In P. London & D. Rosenhan (Eds.), Foundations of abnormal psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  10. Bannister, D., Salmon, P., & Lieberman, D. M. (1964). Diagnosis-treatment relationships in psychiatry: A statistical analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 110, 726–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barlow, D. H., & Wolfe B. E. (1981). Behavioral approaches to anxiety disorders: A report of NIMH-SUNY, Albany, research conference. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 448–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barrett, B. H., Johnston, J. M., & Pennypacker, H. S. (1986). Behavior: Its units, dimensions, and measurement. In R. O. Nelson & S. C. Hayes (Eds.), Conceptual foundations of behavioral assessment. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  13. Beck, A. T., Rush, A J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  14. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). The social-communicative basis of severe behavior problems in children. In S. Reiss & R. Bootzin (Eds.), Theoretical issues in behavior therapy. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Cautela, J. R., & Upper, D. (1973). A behavioral coding system. Unpublished manuscript available from J. Cautela, Dept. of Psychology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  16. Cone, J. D. (1981). Psychometric considerations. In M. Hersen & A S. Bellack (Eds.), Behavioral assessment(pp. 38–68). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  17. Cone, J. D. (1986). Idiographic, nomothetic, and related perspectives. In R. O. Nelson & S. C. Hayes (Eds.), Conceptual foundations of behavioral assessment. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  18. Draguns, J. G., & Phillips, L. (1971). Psychiatric classification and diagnosis: An overview and critique.Morristown, N. J.: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  19. Edelbrock, C., & Achenbach, T. M. (1984). The teacher version of the child behavior profile: 1. Boys aged 6–11. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans, I. M. (1985). Building systems models as a strategy for target behavior selection in clinical asscssmQnt. Behavioral Assessment, 7, 21–32.Google Scholar
  21. Evans, I. M. (1986). Response structure and the triple response mode concept in behavioral assessment. In R. O. Nelson & S. C. Hayes (Eds.), Conceptual foundations of behavioral assessment New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  22. Eysenck, H. J. (Ed.). (1960). Behaviour therapy and the neuroses.London: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  23. Feighner, J. P., Robins, E., Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., Winokur, G., & Munoz, R. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research, Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 57- 63.Google Scholar
  24. Ferster, C. B. (1965). Classification of behavior pathology. In L. Krasner & L. P. Ullmann (Eds.), Research in behavior modification(pp. 6–26). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  25. Frances, A., & Cooper, A. M. (1981). Descriptive and dynamic psychiatry: A perspective on DSM-III. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 1198–1202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldfried, M. R., & Kent, R. N. (1972). Traditional versus behavioral assessment: A comparison of methodological and theoretical assumptions. Psychological Bulletin, 77, 409- 420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goldfried, M. R., & Pomeranz, D. M. (1968). Role of assessment in behavior modification. Psychological Reports, 23, 75–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goodenough, F. L. (1949). Mental testing. New York: Rinehart.Google Scholar
  29. Harris, S. L. (1979). DSM-III—Its implications for children. Child Behavior Therapy 1, 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haynes, S. N. (1986). The design of intervention programs. In R. O. Nelson & S. C. Hayes (Eds.),Conceptual foundations of behavioral assessment New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  31. Hersen, M., & Turner, S. M. (1984). DSM-III and behavior therapy. In S. M. Turner & M. Hersen (Eds.), Adult psychopathology and diagnosis(pp. 485–502). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Hobbs, N. (1975). The futures of children: Categories, labels, and their consequences. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  33. Horai, J. (1981). A brief history of the descriptive behavioral classification project. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  34. Johnston, J. M., & Pennypacker, H. S. (1980). Strategies and tactics of human behavioral research.Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  35. Kanfer, F. H. (1985). Target selection for clinical change programs. Behavioral Assessment, 7, 7–20.Google Scholar
  36. Kaplan, M. (1983). A woman’s view of DSM-III. American Psychologist, 38, 786–792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Karasu, T. B., & Skodol, A. E. (1980). Sixth axis for DSM-III: Psychodynamic evaluation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 607–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kazdin, A. E. (1979). Situational specificity: The two-edged sword of behavioral assessment. Behavioral Assessment, 1, 57–75.Google Scholar
  39. Kazdin, A. E. (1982). Symptom substitution, generalization, and response covariation: Implications for psychotherapy outcome. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 349–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kazdin, A. E. (1983). Psychiatric diagnosis, dimensions of dysfunction, and child behavior therapy. Behavior Therapy, 14, 73–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kazdin, A E. (1985). Selection of target behaviors: The relationship of the treatment focus to clinical dysfunction Behavioral Assessment, 7, 33–47.Google Scholar
  42. Klerman, G. L. (1984). The advantages of DSM-III. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 539- 542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kozak, M. J., & Miller, G. A. (1982). Hypothetical constructs versus intervening variables: A re-appraisal of the three-systems model of anxiety assessment. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 347–358.Google Scholar
  44. Lang, P. J. (1968). Fear reduction and fear behavior: Problems in treating a construct. In J. M. Schlien (Ed.), Research in psychotherapy, Vol 3, (pp. 90–102). Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. MacCorquodale, K, & Meehl, P. E. (1948). On a distinction between hypothetical constructs and intervening variables. Psychological Review, 55, 95–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Maletzky, B. M. (1980). Self-referred versus court-referred sexually deviant patients: Success with assisted covert sensitization. Behavior Therapy, 11, 306–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mash, E. J. (1985). Some comments on target selection in behavior therapy. Behavioral Assessment, 7, 63–78.Google Scholar
  48. Mash, E. J., & Terdal, L. G. (1981). Behavioral assessment of childhood disturbance. In E. J. Mash & L. G. Terdal (Eds.), Behavioral assessment of childhood disorders(pp. 3–76). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  49. Matarazzo, J. D. (1983). The reliability of psychiatric and psychological diagnosis. Clinical Psychology Review, 3, 103–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McLemore, C. W., & Benjamin, L. S. (1979). What happened to interpersonal diagnosis? A psychosocial alternative to DSM -III. American Psychologist, 34, 17–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McReynolds, W. T. (1979). DSM-III and the future of applied social science. Professional Psychology, 10, 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mellsop, G., Verghese, G., Joshua, S., & Hicks, A (1982). The reliability of Axis II of DSM-III. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139.1360–1361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Miller, L. S., Bergstrom, D. A, Cross, H. I, & Grube, J. W. (1981). Opinions and use of the DSM system by practicing psychologists. Professional Psychology, 12, 385–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Millon, T. (1983). The DSM-III: An insider’s perspective. American Psychologist, 38, 804- 814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nathan, P. E. (1981). Symptomatic diagnosis and behavioral assessment. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Behavioral assessment of adult disorders(pp. 1–11). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  56. Nelson, R. O. (1981). Realistic dependent measures for clinical use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 168–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nelson, R. O. (1984). Is behavioral assessment the missing link between diagnosis and treatment? Address presented at the Meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Philadelphia, November, 1984.Google Scholar
  58. Nelson, R. O. (in press). Relationships between assessment and treatment within a behavioral perspective. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment.Google Scholar
  59. Nelson, R. O., & Barlow, D. H. (1981). An overview of behavioral assessment with adult clients: Basic strategies and initial procedures. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Behavioral assessment of adult disorders(pp. 13–43). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  60. Nelson, R. O., & Hayes, S. C. (1979). Some current dimensions of behavioral assessment. Behavioral Assessment, 1, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nelson, R. O., & Hayes, S. C. (1981). An overview of behavioral assessment. In M. Hersen & A S. Bellack(Eds.), Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook(2nd. ed., pp. 3–37). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  62. Nelson, R. O., & Hayes, S. C. (1986). Nature of behavioral assessment. In R. O. Nelson & S. C. Hayes (Eds.), Conceptual foundations of behavioral assessment. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  63. Quay, H. D. (1979). Classification. In H. C. Quay & J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood(2nd ed., pp. 1–42). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  64. Robinson, J. C., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (1973). Behavior modification of speech characteristics in a chronically depressed man. Behavior Therapy, 4, 150–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy.Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
  66. Schact, T. E. (1985). DSM-III and the politics of truth. American Psychologist, 40, 513–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schact, T., & Nathan, P. E. (1977). But is it good for psychologists? Appraisal and status of DSM-III. American Psychologist, 32, 1017–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Singerman, B. (1981). DSM-III: Historical antecedents and present significance. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 42, 409–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Smith, D., & Kraft, W. A. (1983). DSM-III: Do psychologists really want an alternative? American Psychologist, 38, 777–785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J., & Robins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 773–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stuart, R. B. (1970). Trick or treatment.Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  72. Szasz, T. (1960). The myth of mental illness. American Psychologist, 15, 113–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Szasz, T. S. (1957). The problem of psychiatric nosology: A contribution to a situational analysis of psychiatric operations. American Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 405–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Taylor, C. B. (1983). DSM-III and behavioral assessment. Behavioral Assessment, 5, 5–14.Google Scholar
  75. Thompson, J. W., Green, D., & Savitt, H. (1983). Preliminary report on a crosswalk from DSM-III toICD-9-CM. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 176–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Turner, R. J., & Cummings, J. (1967). Theoretical malaise and community mental health. In E. L. Cowen, W. A. Gardner, & M. Zax (Eds.), Emergent approaches to mental health problems(pp. 40–62). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  77. Turner, S. M., & Michelson, L. (1984). Conceptual, methodological, and clinical issues in the assessment of anxiety disorders. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 6, 265–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Vaillant, G. E. (1984). The disadvantages of DSM-III outweighs its advantages. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 542–545.Google Scholar
  79. Voeltz, L. M., & Evans, I. M. (1982). The assessment of behavioral interrelationships in child behavior therapy. Behavior Assessment, 4, 131–165.Google Scholar
  80. Wahler, R. G. (1975). Some structural aspects of deviant child behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 27–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wahler, R. G., & Fox, J. J. (1980). Solitary toy play and time out: A family treatment package for children with aggressive and oppositional behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 23–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wahler, R. G., & Fox, J. J. (1982). Response structure in deviant child-parent relationships: Implications for family therapy. In D. J. Bernstein (Ed.\ Response structure and organization. 1981 Nebraska symposium on motivation(pp. 1–46). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  83. Weiner, I. B. (1972). Does psychodiagnosis have a future? Journal of Personality Assessment, 36, 534–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zigler, E., & Phillips, L. (1961). Psychiatric diagnosis and sympomatology. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosemery O. Nelson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of North CarolinaGreensboroUSA

Personalised recommendations