Advertisement

Gonococcal Infections

  • David G. Ostrow

Abstract

Gonorrhea is the world’s most common sexually transmitted infectious disease. Approximately 1 million cases of gonorrhea are reported each year in the United States.1 Figure 1 shows the overall trends in gonorrhea infections in the United States as reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Unreported cases are estimated to be as high as 3 million per year. Several comprehensive reviews concerning gonococcal infection have recently been published,2,3 and the reader is referred to these sources for general information regarding the subject.

Keywords

Sexual Contact Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Gonococcal Infection Gonococcal Urethritis Pharyngeal Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Center for Disease Control: Gonorrhea: Reported Morbidity and Mortality in the United States. MMWR 27 (Suppl): 27–29, 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Morton RS: Gonorrhoea. London, Saunders, 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Skinner FA, Walker PD, Smith H: Gonorrhoea: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis. London, Academic Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Janda WM, Bohnoff M, Lerner SA, et al: Epidemiology of pathogenic Neisseria in homosexual men. J Homosexuality 5 (3): 289–290, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gilbaugh JH, Fuchs PC: The gonococcus and the toilet seat. N Engl J Med 301: 91–93, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rein MF: Nonsexual acquisition of genital gonococcal infection (Letter to Editors). N Engl J Med 301: 1347, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harnisch JP, Wiesner PJ, Holmes KK: Clinical epidemiology of VD: The role of the homosexual. Cutis 9: 221–224, 1972.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    British Cooperative Clinical Groups: Homosexuality and venereal disease in the United King-dom. Br J Vener Dis 49: 329–334, 1973.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Seigel MS, Thompson SE, Perine PL: Penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex Transm Dis 4: 32–33, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Crawford G, Knapp JS, Hale J, et al: Asymptomatic gonorrhea in men: Caused by gonococci with unique nutritional requirements. Science 196: 1352–1353, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jacobs NF, Kraus S J: Gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis in men. Ann Intern Med 82: 7–12, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Handsfield HH, Lipman TO, Harnisch JP, et al: Asymptomatic gonorrhea in men. Diagnosis, natural course, prevalence and significance. N Engl J Med 209: 117–123, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klein EF, Fisher LS, Chow AW, et al: Anorectal gonococcal infection. Ann Intern Med 86: 340–346, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kilpatrick ZM: Gonorrheal proctitis. N Engl J Med 287: 967–969, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Felman YM: Pharyngeal gonorrhea. Sex Transm Dis Newslett (City of New York) 2: 1–4, 1979.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hallquist L, Lindgren S: Gonorrhea of the throat at a venereological clinic. Incidence and the results of treatment. Br J Yener Dis 51: 395–397, 1975.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wiesner PJ: Gonococcal pharyngeal infection. Clin Obstet Gynecol 18: 121–129, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wiesner PJ, Tronca E, Bonin P, et al: Clinical spectrum of pharyngeal gonococcal infection. N Engl J Med 288: 181–185, 1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kraus SJ: Complications of gonococcal infection. Med Clin N Am 56: 1115–1125, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Holmes KK, Counts GW, Beaty HN: Disseminated gonococcal infection. Ann Intern Med 74: 979–993, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Harnisch JP, Alexander ER, Berger RE, et al: Aetiology of acute epididymitis. Lancet 1:819–821, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Furness G, Kamat NH, Kaminski Z, et al: Relationship of epididymitis to gonorrhea. Invest Urol 11: 312–314, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Provine H, Gardner P: The gram-stain smear and its interpretation. Hosp Pract 9: 85–91, 1974.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sands M: Nonsymptomatic urethral gonorrhea in homosexual men. Sex Transm Dis 7: 206, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McMillan A, Young H: Gonorrhea in homosexual men: Frequency of infection by culture site. Sex Transm Dis 5: 146–150, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Centers for Disease Control: Sexually transmitted diseases: Treatment guidelines, 1982. MMWR 31 (Suppl): 37s - 40s, 1982.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kraus SJ: Incidence and therapy of gonococcal pharyngitis. Sex Transm Dis 6 (Suppl): 143–147, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jaffe H: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Washington AE: Experience with various antibiotics for treatment of anorectal gonorrhea. Sex Transm Dis 6 (Suppl): 148–151, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zaidi AA, Reynolds GH, Jones OG, et al: Rectal gonorrhea. Presented by SE Thompson at the symposium on Recent Advances in STDs, Chicago, June 22, 1979. Unpublished study of CDC National Gonorrhea Therapy Monitoring Network.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Legedeft DA, Hochman EB: Rectal gonorrhea in men: Diagnosis and treatment. Ann Intern Med 92: 463–466, 1980.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sands M: Therapy of anorectal gonorrhea in gay men. Presented at Current Aspects of Sexually Transmitted Diseases II, San Francisco, June 19, 1980.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jaffe HW, Biddle JW, Thornsberry C, et al: National Gonorrhea Therapy Monitoring Study: In vitro susceptibility and its correlation with treatment results. N Engl J Med 294: 5–9, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ng WWS, Echeverria P, Rockhill R, et al: Antibiotic sensitivities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the Far East: Comparison of plasmid species in isolates from six countries. Sex Transm Dis 9: 120–123, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reynolds GH, Zaidi AA, Thornsberry C, et al: The National Gonorrhea Therapy Monitoring Study. II. Trends and seasonality of antibiotic resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex Transm Di 6(Suppl): 103–111, 1979.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Leftik MI, Miller, JW, Brown JD: Penicillin-resistant gonococcal polyarthritis. JAMA 239: 134, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Holmes KK, Handsfield HH, Wang SP, et al: Etiology of nongonococcal urethritis. N Engl J Med 292: 1199–1205, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Judson FN, Miller KG, Schaffnit GN: Screening for gonorrhea and syphilis in the gay baths-Denver, Colorado. Am J Pub Health 67: 740–742, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Merino HI, Judson FN, Bennet D, et al: Screening for gonorrhea and syphilis in gay bathhouses in Denver and Los Angeles. Pub Health Rep 94: 376–379, 1979.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Altman N, Ostrow DG: Methods of risk factor identification in gay men. Presented at Current Aspects of Sexually Transmitted Diseases II, San Francisco, June 20, 1980.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ostrow DG, Shaskey D, Steffen G, et al: Epidemiology of gonorrhea infections in gay men. J Homosexuality 5: 285–288, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schroeder MT, Thompson SE, Hadler SC, et al: Epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in gay men. J Homosexuality 5: 307–310, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Harrison WO, Hooper RR, Wiesner PJ, et al: A trial of minocycline given after exposure to prevent gonorrhea. N Engl J Med 300: 1074–1079, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Holmes HH: Unpublished study, data presented at the symposium on Current Aspects of STDs, Chicago, June 22, 1979.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Merino HI, Richards JB: An innovative program of venereal disease casefinding, treatment, and education for a gay male population. Sex Transm Dis 4: 50–52, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ostrow DG: Spotting and treating STDs in gay men. Mod Med 47: 42–47, 1979.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Felman YM, Morrison JM: Examining the homosexual male for STDs. JAMA 238: 2046–2047, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • David G. Ostrow
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Biological Psychiatry ProgramLakeside Veterans Administration Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryNorthwestern University Medical SchoolChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Community MedicineNorthwestern University Medical SchoolChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Howard Brown Memorial ClinicChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations