Advertisement

Inducing Flexible Thinking: The Problem of Access

  • Ann L. Brown
  • Joseph C. Campione
Chapter
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 14)

Abstract

We began by illustrating that the concept of accessibility was central to many theories of psychology from quite disparate domains. A distinction similar to Pylyshyn’s of multiple and reflective access also seems to be, at least implicitly, part of many theories. Given that accessibility is a core concept in so many current disputes, we suggest that no theory of intelligence can be complete unless provision is made for the operation of second-order knowledge, i.e., knowledge about what we know (reflective access) and flexible use of the routines available to the system (multiple access).

In the second part of the paper we consider the evidence that diagnosis of retarded and learning disabled children’s learning problems based on process theories are fundamentally diagnoses of restricted access. Training studies, whether successful or not at inducing transfer, provide rich support for the hypothesis that the slow learning child has peculiar difficulty with the flexible use of knowledge. In the final section we consider the implications of the position for the design of training programs to alleviate the problem of accessibility. Here we address the developing technology we have for programming transfer of training and the importance of interpersonal settings, particularly Socratic tutoring, as cognitive support systems for learning.

Keywords

Multiple Access Executive Control Training Study Retarded Child Adaptive Specialization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bobrow, D. G. and Norman, D. A. Some principles of memory schemata. In D. G. Bobrow and A. Collins (Eds.), Representation and Understanding. New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  2. Bransford, J. D. Human cognition: Learning, understanding and remembering.Google Scholar
  3. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1979. Brown, A.L. The role of strategic behavior in retardate memory. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation. Vol. 7. New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, A. L. Knowing when, where, and how to remember: A problem of metacognition. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1978.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, A. L. Constraints on learning. Human Development, 1979, in press.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, A. L. and Campione, J. C. Permissible inferences from the outcome of training studies in cognitive development research. Quarterly Newsletter of the Institute for Comparative Human Development, 1978, 2, 46–53.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, A. L., Campione, J. C. and Barclay, C. R. Training self-checking routines for estimating test readiness: Generalization from list learning to prose recall. Child Development, 1979, in press.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, A. L. and French, L. A. The zone of potential development: Implication for intelligence testing in the year 2000. Intelligence, 1979, in press.Google Scholar
  9. Campione, J. C., and Brown, A. L. Toward a theory of intelligence: Contributions from research with retarded children. Intelligence, 1978, 2, 279–304.Google Scholar
  10. Cole, M., Hood, L. and McDermott, H. Ecological niche picking: Ecological invalidity as an axiom of experimental cognitive psychology Unpublished manuscript. Rockefeller University, 1978.Google Scholar
  11. Collins, A. Processes in acquiring and using knowledge. In R. C. Anderson, R. J. Spiro, and E. Montague (eds.). Schooling and acquisition of knowledge. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1977.Google Scholar
  12. Dashiell, J. F. Experimental studies of the influence of social situations on the behavior of individual human adults. In C. Murchison (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology. Worchester: Clark University Press, 1935.Google Scholar
  13. Flavell, J. H. Cognitive monitoring. Paper presented at Conference of Children’s Communication. University of Wisconsin, October, 1978.Google Scholar
  14. Flores, C. F. and Winograd, T. Understanding cognition as understanding. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, 1978.Google Scholar
  15. Garner, H. Commentary on annual awareness papers. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1978, 4, 572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gelman, R. The preschool child’s understanding of number. Paper presented at the American Education Researchers Association. San Francisco, April, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. Katz, D. Animals and men: Studies in comparative psychology. London: Longman Green, 1939.Google Scholar
  18. Kelley, H. H. and Thibaut, J. W. Experimental studies of group problem solving and process. In G. Lindsey (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology. Vol. 2. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1954.Google Scholar
  19. Marler, P. A comparative approach to vocal learning; song development in white crowned sparrows. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, Monograph 71(2), Part 2, 1–25, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Meichenbaum, D. Cognitive behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  21. Moore, J. and Newell, A. How can Merlin understand? In L. W. Gregg (Ed.), Knowledge and cognition. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974.Google Scholar
  22. Pylyshyn, Z. W. When is attribution of beliefs justified? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1978a, 1, 592–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pylyshyn, Z. W. Computational models and empirical constraints. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1978b, 93–100.Google Scholar
  24. Resnick, L. B. and Glaser, R. Problem-solving and intelligence. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1976.Google Scholar
  25. Rozin, P. The evolution of intelligence and access to the cognitive unconscious. Progression in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology, 1976, 6, 245–280.Google Scholar
  26. Schallert, D. L. and Kleiman, G. M. Some reasons why the teacher is easier to understand than the textbook. Reading Education Report Series, Center for the Study of Reading, University of Illinois, 1979.Google Scholar
  27. Sutherland, N. S. Task constraints and process models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1978, 1, 116.Google Scholar
  28. Thorndike, E. L. Measurement of intelligence. New York: Teacher’s College, Columbia University, 1926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tulving, E. Relation between encoding specificity and levels of processing. In L. S. Cermak and F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing and human memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1978.Google Scholar
  30. Vygotsky, L. S. Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. In M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, and E. Souberman (Eds.), Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  31. Wertsch, J. Untitled manuscript, 1978.Google Scholar
  32. Wood, D. and Middleton, D. A study of assisted problem-solying. British Journal of Psychology, 1975, 66, 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann L. Brown
    • 1
  • Joseph C. Campione
    • 1
  1. 1.University of IllinoisChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations