Advertisement

Ability Factors and the Speed of Information Processing

  • Marcy Lansman
Chapter
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 14)

Abstract

Measures based on two models from cognitive psychology, the Clark and Chase model of sentence verification and the Shepard and Metzler model of mental rotation, were related to ability factors of the Horn-Cattell theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Analysis of individual differences was also used to test the internal consistency of the two cognitive models. The individual differences analysis cast serious doubt on the validity of the sentence verification model, and measures derived from that model were only very weakly related to the ability factors. On the other hand, the model of mental rotation was supported by the individual differences analysis, and a strong relationship was found between parameters of the model and the visualization factor of the Horn-Cattell theory. Possible reasons for the failure to find process explanations for verbal ability factors are considered.

Keywords

Mental Rotation Spatial Ability Verbal Ability Fluid Intelligence Negation Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Carpenter, P. A. and Just, M. A. Sentence comprehension: A psycholinguistic processing model of verification. Psychological Review, 1975, 82, 45–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clark, H. and Chase, W. On the process of comparing sentences against pictures. Cognitive Psychology, 1972, 3, 472–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hogaboam, T. W. and Pellegrino, J. W. Hunting for individual differences in cognitive processes: Verbal ability and semantic processing of pictures and words. Memory and Cognition, 1978, 6, 189–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hunt, E. Mechanics of verbal ability. Psychological Review, 1978, 85, 109–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jackson, M. D. and McClelland, J. L. Processing determinants of reading speed. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1979, 2, 151–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kahneman, D. Attention and effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973.Google Scholar
  7. MacLeod, C. M., Hunt, E. B., and Mathews, N. N. Individual differences in the verification of sentence-picture relationships. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1978, 17, 493–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Norman, D. A. and Bobrow, D. G. On data-limited and resource-limited processes. Cognitive Psychology, 1975, 7, 44–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Palmer, S. E. The nature of perceptual representation: An examination of the analog/propositional debate. In R. C. Schank and B. L. Nash-Webber (Eds.), Theoretical issues in natural language processing. Arlington, VA: Tinlap Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  10. Shepard, R. N. and Metzler, J. Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects. Science, 1971, 171, 701–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sternberg, R. J. Intelligence, information processing, and analogical reasoning: The Componential Analysis of human abilities. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1977.Google Scholar
  12. Tapley, S. M. and Bryden, M. P. An investigation of sex differences in spatial ability: Mental rotation of three dimensional objects. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1977, 31, 122–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Underwood, B. J. Individual differences as a crucible in theory construction. American Psychologist, 1975, 30, 128–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Reference Notes

  1. 1.
    Sternberg, R. J. and Weü, E. M. An aptitude-strategy interaction in linear syllogistic reasoning. Yale University Technical Report, 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lansman, M. An attentional approach to individual differences in immediate memory. University of Washington Technical Report, 1978.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Snyder, C. R. R. Individual differences in imagery and thought. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Oregon, 1972.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcy Lansman
    • 1
  1. 1.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations