Advertisement

Toward a Theory of Aptitude for Learning I. Fluid and Crystallized Abilities and their Correlates

  • Richard E. Snow
Chapter
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 14)

Abstract

This paper focuses on the psychology of aptitude for learning in formal educational settings, and particularly on the nature of measured cognitive abilities as aptitudes. This is only a part of what is needed for a theory of aptitude, but it is perhaps the best place to start: the concept of aptitude has been connected with formal schooling almost since their mutual beginnings, and more scientific evidence is now available about the role of aptitude here, as measured by mental tests, than about aptitude, however measured, in any other natural or social situation. Whatever else it does, a theory of aptitude will need to account for the accumulated evidence about mental test performance in relation to learning from instruction.

Keywords

Spatial Ability Performance Program Memory Span Instructional Treatment Instructional Condition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, J. R., Kline, P. J. and Beasley, C. M., Jr. Complex learning processes. In Snow, R. E., Federico, P-A. and Montague, W. E. (Eds.) Aptitude, learning, and instruction; Volume 1, Cognitive process analyses of aptitude.Google Scholar
  2. Cattell, R. B. Theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence; A critical experiment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1963, 54, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cattell, R. B. Abilities; Their structure, growth and action. Boston; Houghton Mifflin, 1971.Google Scholar
  4. Chiang, A., and Atkinson, R. C. Individual differences and interrelationships among a select set of cognitive skills. Memory and Cognition, 1976, 4, 661–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crist-Whitzel, J. L. and Hawley-Winne, B. J. Individual differences and mathematics achievement: An investigation of aptitude-treatment interactions in an evaluation of three instructional approaches. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, April 1976.Google Scholar
  6. Cronbach, L. J. and Snow, R. E. Aptitudes and instructional methods: A handbook for research on interactions. New York: Irvington, 1977.Google Scholar
  7. Ferguson, G. A. On learning and human ability. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1954, 8, 95–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferguson, G. A. On transfer and the abilities of man. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1956, 10, 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guttman, L. The structure of relations among intelligence tests. Proceedings, 1964 Invitational Conference on Testing Problems. Princeton, N. J.: Educational Testing Service, 1965.Google Scholar
  10. Heinonen, V. A. A factor analytic study of transfer of training. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 1962, 3, 177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Horn, J. L. Human Abilities: A review of research and theory in the early 1970’s. Annual Review of Psychology, 1976, 27, 437–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hunt, E. B. and Lansman, M. Cognitive theory applied to individual differences. In W. K. Estes (Ed.), Handbook of learning and cognitive processes; Volume I. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1975.Google Scholar
  13. Jensen, A. R. Hierarchical theories of mental ability. In W. B. Dockrell (Ed.), On intelligence. London: Methuen, 1970.Google Scholar
  14. Lohman, D. F. Spatial ability: A review and reanalysis of the correlational literature. (Tech. Rep. No. 8.) Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Aptitude Research Project, School of Education, October, 1979.Google Scholar
  15. Lohman, D. F. Spatial ability: Individual differences in speed and level. (Tech. Rep. No. 9.) Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Aptitude Research Project, School of Education, October, 1979.Google Scholar
  16. Olson, D. R. Media and symbols: The forms of expression, communication, and education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  17. Rose, A. M. Information processing abilities. In Snow, R. E., Federico, P-A., and Montague, W. E. (Eds.). Aptitude, learning, and instruction: Volume I, cognitive process analyses of aptitudes. Hill-dale, N.J.: Erlbaum, in press.Google Scholar
  18. Royer, F. L. Information processing of visual figures in the digit symbol substitution test. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 81, 335–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rumelhart, D. E., and Norman, D. A. Accretion, tuning, and restructuring: Three modes of learning. Report No. 7602, Center for Human Information Processing, University of California, San Diego, August 1976.Google Scholar
  20. Sharps, R. A study of interactions between fluid and crystallized abilities and two methods of teaching reading and arithmetic. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1973.Google Scholar
  21. Snow, R. E. Aptitude processes. In Snow, R. E., Federico, P-A., and Montague, W. E. (Eds.). Aptitude learning and instruction; Volume I, Cognitive process analyses of aptitude. Hill-dale, N.J.; Erlbaum, in press.Google Scholar
  22. Snow, R. E. Research on aptitudes; A progress report. In L. S. Shulman (Ed.). Review of Research in education. Vol. 4. Itasca, IL: Peacock, 1977.Google Scholar
  23. Snow, R. E. Theory and method for research on aptitude processes. Intelligence, 1978, 2, 225–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Snow, R. E., Wescourt, K. and Freitas, J. Individual differences in aptitude and learning from interactive computer-based instruction. (Tech. Rep. No. 10.) Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Aptitude Research Project, School of Education, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard E. Snow
    • 1
  1. 1.Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations