The engineer generally thinks of the practical, quantitative properties of materials as single, approximate values such as those found in a handbook1 or encyclopedia.2 Such values represent selected or average results culled from the technical literature, where the data come from standardized tests, especially those of the ASTM.3 The tests are generally performed on comparatively large specimens, although some so-called microspecimens can be used when there is a severely limited amount of material.4 A standard test piece is prepared as specified, and the piece is subjected to the pertinent forces or influences under standardized conditions, producing a number which is then widely accepted.
KeywordsSteel Ball Standard Load Scratch Hardness Diamond Point Permanent Indentation
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