The Effect of Counselor Empathy and Communication Modality on Client Outcomes



Chapter 1 of this book describes the difficulties in determining whether empathy is important to counseling and psychotherapy positive outcomes. Chapters 3 and 4 illustrate group experimental and descriptive designs and the problems inherent in each. This chapter describes a study that used N = 1 approach. This was used in an attempt to avoid some of the group design problems; however, this led to certain other difficulties.


Nonverbal Behavior Communication Modality Client Satisfaction Client Outcome Empathic Understanding 
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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1987

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