Advertisement

Abstract

Chromosome maneuvers in mitosis lead to controlled chromosome distribution to the daughter cells. This makes an understanding of the cellular mechanism involved central to the problems of inheritance and development: the perpetuation of the chromosome complement is a primary process on which all else depends. The range of disciplines interested in mitosis now extends to medicine because of recent studies on abnormal chromosome complements in man. But as usual, it is the intriguing complexity and beauty of the process itself which animates most researchers.

Keywords

Spindle Microtubule Spindle Fiber Chromosome Motion Mitotic Apparatus Sister Kinetochore 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldrich, H. 1969. The infrastructure of mitosis in myxamoebae and Plasmodia of Physarum flavicomum. Amer. J. Bot., 56:290–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allenspach, A. L., and L. E. Roth. 1967. Structural variations during mitosis in the chick embryo. J. Cell Biol., 33:179–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amoore, J. E. 1963. Non-identical mechanims of mitotic arrest by respiratory inhibitors in pea root tips and sea urchin eggs. J. Cell Biol., 18:555–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bajer, A. 1958a. Ciné-micrographic studies on mitosis in endosperm. IV. The mitotic contraction stage. Exp. Cell Res., 14:245–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bajer, A. 1958b. Cine-micrographic studies on chromosome movements in β- irradiated cells. Chromosoma, 9:319–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bajer, A. 1958c. Ciné-micrographic studies on mitosis in endosperm. V. Formation of the metaphase plate. Exp. Cell Res., 15:370–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bajer, A. 1963. Observations on dicentrics in living cells. Chromosoma, 14:18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bajer, A. 1964. Cine-micrographic studies on dicentric chromosomes. Chromosoma, 15:630–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bajer, A. 1967. Notes on ultrastructure and some properties of transport within the living mitotic spindle. J. Cell Biol., 33:713–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bajer, A. 1968a. Chromosome movement and fine structure of the mitotic spindle. In Aspects of Cell Motility, Society for Experimental Biology Symposium, P. L. Miller (ed.), Cambridge, University Press, Vol. 22, pp. 285–310.Google Scholar
  11. Bajer, A. 1968b. Fine structure studies on phragmoplast and cell plate formation. Chromosoma, 24:383–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bajer, A. 1968c. Behavior and fine structure of spindle fibers during mitosis in endosperm. Chromosoma, 25:249–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bajer, A. and R. D. Allen. 1966a. Structure and organization of the living mitotic spindle of Haemanthus endosperm. Science, 151:572–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bajer, A. and R. D. Allen. 1966b. Role of phragmoplast filaments in cellplate formation. J. CellSci., 1:455–462.Google Scholar
  15. Bajer, A. and C. Jensen. 1969. Detectability of mitotic spindle microtubules with the light and electron microscope. J. Micr., 8:343–354.Google Scholar
  16. Bajer, A. and J. Mole-Bajer, 1956. Cine-micrographic studies on mitosis in endosperm. II. Chromosome, cytoplasmic, and brownian movements. Chromosoma, 7:558–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bajer, A. and J. Mole-Bajer. 1963. Cine-analysis of some aspects of mitosis in endosperm. In Cinemicrography in Cell Biology, Rose, C. G., ed., New York, Academic Press, Inc., p. 357–409.Google Scholar
  18. Bajer, A. and J. Mole-Bajer. 1969. Formation of spindle fibers, kinetochore orientation, and behavior of the nuclear envelope during mitosis in endosperm. Chromosoma, 27:448–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bajer, A. and G. Ostergren. 1961. Centromere-like behavior of non-centromeric bodies. I.Neo-centric activity in chromosome arms at mitosis. Hereditas (Lund), 47:563–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barnicot, N. A. 1966. A note on the structure of spindle fibers. J. Cell Sci., 1:217–222.Google Scholar
  21. Barton, R. 1969. Investigation of negatively stained plant flagellar microtubules by optical diffraction. J. Cell Biol., 41:637–641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bauer, H., R. Dietz, and C. Robbelen. 1961. Die Spermatocytenteilungen der Tipuliden. III. Das Bewegungsverhalten der Chromosomen in Translokationsheterozygoten von Tipula oleracea. Chromosoma, 12:116–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Behnke, O. 1967. Incomplete microtubules observed in mammalian blood platelets during microtubule polymerization. J. Cell Biol., 34:697–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Behnke, O. 1970. A comparative study of microtubules of disc-shaped blood cells. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 31:61–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Behnke, O. and A.Forer. 1966. Some aspects of microtubules in spermatocyte meiosis in a crane fly (Nephrotoma suturalis Loew): intranuclear and intrachromosomal microtubules. C. R. Lab. Carlsberg, 35:437–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Behnke, O. and A. Forer. 1967. Evidence for four classes of microtubules in individual cells. J. Cell Sci., 2:169–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Behnke, O. and T. Zelander. 1966. Substructure in negatively stained microtubules of mammalian blood platelets. Exp. Cell Res., 43:236–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Behnke, O. and T. Zelander. 1967. Filamentous substructure of microtubules of the marginal bundle of mammalian blood platelets. J. Ultrastruc. Res., 19:147–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Belaf, K. 1929. Beitrage zur Kausalanalyse der Mitose. Untersuchungen an den Spermatocyten von Chorthippus (Stenobothrus) lineatus Panz. Wilhelm Roux’ Arch. Entwicklungsmech., 118:359–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bibring, T. and J. Baxandall. 1968. Mitotic apparatus: The selective extraction of protein with mild acid. Science, 161:337–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bibring, T. and J. Baxandall. 1969. Immunochemical studies of 22S protein from isolated mitotic apparatus. J. Cell Biol., 41:577–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bibring, T. and G. H. Cousineau. 1964. Percentage incorporation of leucine labelled with carbon-14 into isolated mitotic apparatus during early development of sea urchin eggs. Nature (London), 204:805–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bloom, W., R. E. Zirkle, and R. B. Uretz. 1955. Irradiation of parts of individual cells. III. Effects of chromosomal and extrachromosomal irradiation on chromosome movements. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 59:503–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Borisy G. G., and E. W. Taylor, 1967a. The mechanism of action of colchicine. Binding of colchicine-H3 to cellular protein. J. Cell Biol., 34:525–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Borisy G. G., and E. W. Taylor. 1967b. The mechanism of action of colchicine. Colchicine binding to sea urchin eggs and the mitotic apparatus. J. Cell Biol., 34: 535–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brinkley, B. R. Personal Communication.Google Scholar
  37. Brinkley, B. R. and R. B. Nicklas. 1968. Ultra structure of the meiotic spindle of grasshopper spermatocytes after chromosome micromanipulation. J. Cell Biol., 39:no. 2: pt. 2:16a (abstr.).Google Scholar
  38. Brinkley, B. R. and R. B. Nicklas. Unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  39. Brinkley, B. R. and E. Stubblefield. 1966. The fine structure of the kinetochore of a mammalian cell in vitro. Chromosoma, 19:28–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Brinkley, B. R. and E. Stubblefield. 1970. Ultrastructure and interaction of the kinetochore and centriole in mitosis and meiosis. In Advances in Cell Biology, Prescott, D. M., L. Goldstein, and E. McConkey, eds., New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Vol. 1, pp. 119–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Brinkley, B. R. and J. Cartwright. 1971. Ultrastructural analysis of mitotic spindle elongation in mammalian cells in vitro: direct microtubule counts J. Cell Biol., (in press).Google Scholar
  42. Brinkley, B. R., E. Stubblefield, and T. C. Hsu. 1967. The effects of colcemid inhibition and reversal on the fine structure of the mitotic apparatus of Chinese hamster cells in vitro. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 19:1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Buck, R. C. 1967. Mitosis and meiosis in Rhodnius prolixus: The fine structure of the spindle and diffuse kinetochore. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 18:489–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Burnham, C. R. 1962. Discussions in Cytogenetics, Minneapolis, Burgess. Burns, R. G., and R. E. Kane. Origin of two proteins of the isolated mitotic apparatus. J. Cell. Biol., 47:27a (abstr.).Google Scholar
  45. Byers, B., and D. H. Abramson. 1968. Cytokinesis in HeLa: Post-telophase delay and microtubule-associated motility. Protoplasma, 66:413–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Camenzind, R., and R. B. Nicklas. 1968. The non-random chromosome segregation in spermatocytes of Gryllotalpa hexadactyla. Chromosoma, 24:324–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Carlson, J. G. 1938. Some effects of x-radiation on the neuroblast chromosomes of the grasshopper Chortophaga viridifasciata. Genetics, 23:596–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Carlson, J. G. 1952. Microdissection studies of the dividing neuroblast of the grasshopper, Chortophaga viridifasciata (DeGeer). Chromosoma, 5:199–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Carothers, E. E. 1917. The segregation and recombination of homologous chromosomes as found in two genera of Acrididae (Orthoptera). J. Morph., 28:445–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Carothers, E. E. 1921. Genetical behaviour of heteromorphic homologous chromosomes of Circotettix (Orthoptera). J. Morph., 35:457–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Caspar, D. L. D. 1963. Assembly and stability of the tobacco mosaic virus particle. In Advances in Protein Chemistry, Anfinsen, C. B., M. L. Anson, and J. T. Edsall, eds., New York, Academic Press, Inc., Vol. 18, pp. 37–121.Google Scholar
  52. Caspar, D. L. D. 1966. Design principles in organized biological structures. In Principles of Biomolecular Organization, Wolstenholme, G. E. W., and M. O’Connor, eds., London, J. & A. Churchill, pp. 7–39.Google Scholar
  53. Cassim, J. Y., P. S. Tobias, and E. W. Taylor. 1968. Birefringence of muscle proteins and the problems of structural birefringence. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 168:463–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cleveland, L. R. 1963. Function of flagellate and other centrioles in cell reproduction. In The Cell in Mitosis, Levine, L., ed., New York, Academic Press, Inc., pp. 3–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cohen, W. D. 1968. Polyelectrolyte properties of the isolated mitotic apparatus. Exp. Cell Res., 51:221–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Comings, D. E., 1970. The distribution of sister chromatids at mitosis in Chinese hamster cells. Chromosoma, 29:428–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Cornman, I. 1944. A summary of evidence in favor of the traction fiber in mitosis. Amer. Natur., 78:410–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Crouse, H. V. 1960. The controlling element in sex chromosome behavior in Sciara. Genetics, 45:1429–1443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Crouse, H. V. 1966. An inducible change in state of the chromosomes of Sciara: Its effects on the genetic components of the X. Chromosoma, 18:230–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Cuevas-Sosa, A. 1968. Human chromosomology: Segregation of chromatids in diploid cells in vitro. Nature (London), 218:1059–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Cuzin, F., and Jacob, F. 1965. Existence chez Escherichia coli d’une unite genetique de segregation formee de differents réplicons. C. R. Acad. Sci. [D] (Paris), 260:5411–5414.Google Scholar
  62. Cuzin, F., and Jacob, F. de Harven, E. 1968. The centriole and the mitotic spindle. In Ultrastructure in Biological Systems, Dalton, A. J., and F. Haguenau, eds., New York, Academic Press, Inc., Vol. 3, The Nucleus, pp. 197–227.Google Scholar
  63. Dietz, R. 1956. Die spermatocytenteilungen der Tipuliden. II. Graphische Analyse der Chromosomenbewegung wahren der Prometaphase I im Leben. Chromosoma, 8:183–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dietz, R. 1958. Multiple Geschlechchromosomen bei den cypriden Ostracoden, ihre Evolution und ihr Teilungsverhalten. Chromosoma, 9:359–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dietz, R. 1959. Centrosomenfreie Spindelpole in Tipuliden-Spermatocyten. Z. Naturforsch [B], 14:749–753.Google Scholar
  66. Dietz, R. 1963. Polarizationsmikroskopische Befunde zur chromosomeninduzierten Spindel-bildung bei der Tipulide Pales crocata (Nematocera). Zool. Anz., 26 (Suppl.): 131–138.Google Scholar
  67. Dietz, R. 1964. The dispensability of the centrioles in the spermatocyte divisions of Pales ferruginea (Nematocera). In Chromosomes Today, Darlington, C. D., and K. R. Lewis, eds., Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd, Vol. 1, pp. 161–166.Google Scholar
  68. Dietz, R. 1969. Bau und Funktion des Spindelapparats. Naturwissenschaften, 56:237–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Donnelly, G. M., and J. E. Sisken. 1967. RNA and protein synthesis required for entry of cells into mitosis and during the mitotic cycle. Exp. Cell Res., 46:93–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Douglas, L. T. 1968a. Meiosis III: The elastica, and Markov processes as models for non-random segregation from associated non-homologues in Drosophila. Genetica, 39:289–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Douglas, L. T. 1968b. Meiosis IV: Segregation from interchange multivalents as a Markov process. Genetica, 39:429–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Douglas, L. T. 1968c. Meiosis V: Matric and path coefficent solutions of tri-and quadrivalents. Genetica, 39:456–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. DuPraw, E. J. 1968. Cell and Molecular Biology. New York, Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  74. Echandia, E. L. R., and R. S. Piezzi. 1968. Microtubules in the nerve fibers of the toad Bufo arenarum Hensel. Effects of low temperature on the sciatic nerve. J. Cell Biol., 39:491–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Elliott, G. F. 1968. Force-balances and stability in hexagonally-packed polyelectrolyte systems. J. Theor. Biol., 21:71–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Falk, H., F. Wunderlich, and W. W. Franke. 1968. Microtubular structures in macronuclei of synchronously dividing Tetrahymena pyriformis. J. Protozool., 15:776–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. FieMing, P., and C. F. Fox. 1970. Evidence for stable attachment of DNA to membrane at the replication origin of Escherichia coli. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 41:157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Forer, A. 1965. Local reduction of spindle fiber birefringence in living Nephrotoma suturalis (Loew) spermatocytes induced by ultraviolet microbeam irradiation. J. Cell Biol., 25 (Mitosis Suppl.):95–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Forer, A. 1966. Characterization of the mitotic traction system, and evidence that birefringent spindle fibers neither produce nor transmit force for chromosome movement. Chromosoma, 19:44–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Forer, A. 1969. Chromosome movements during cell division. In Handbook of Molecular Cytology, Lima-de-Faria, A., ed., Amsterdam, North-Holland, pp. 553–601.Google Scholar
  81. Forer, A. and R. D. Goldman. 1969. Comparisons of isolated and in vivo mitotic apparatuses. Nature (London), 222:689–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Freed, J. J., A. N. Bhisey, and M. M. Lebowitz. 1968. The relation of microtubules and microfilaments to the motility of cultured cells. J. Cell Biol., 39:46a(abstr.).Google Scholar
  83. Fuhs, G. W. 1969. The nuclear structures of protocaryotic organisms (Bacteria and cyanophyceae).In Protoplasmatologia, 5(4),1–186, Wien, Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  84. Gall, J. G. 1965. Fine structure of microtubules. J. Cell Biol., 27:33a (abstr.).Google Scholar
  85. Gall, J. G. 1966. Microtubule fine structure. J. Cell Biol., 31:639–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. George, P., L. J. Journey, and M. N. Goldstein. 1965. Effect of vincristine on the fine structure of HeLa cells during mitosis. J. Nat. Cancer Inst., 35:355–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gibbins, J. R., L. E. Tilney, and K. R. Porter. 1969. Microtubules in the formation and development of the primary mesenchyme in Arbacia punctulata. I. The distribution of microtubules. J. Cell Biol., 41:201–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gibbons, I. R. 1963. Studies on the protein components of cilia from Tetrahymena pyriformis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 50:1002–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gibbons, I. R. 1968. The biochemistry of motility. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 37:521–546.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Goldman, R. D., and L. I. Rebhun. 1969. The structure and some properties of the isolated mitotic apparatus. J. Cell Sci., 4:179–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Goldstein, L. 1967. Mitosis: On the mechanism for invariable sister chromatid segregation. Science, 156:1133–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gould, M. C. 1968. Completion of the first meiotic division after fertilization in Urechis caupo eggs despite inhibition of protein synthesis. J. Cell Biol., 38:220–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Grimstone, A. V. 1967. Structure and formation of some fibrilla organelles in protozoa. In Formation and Fate of Cell Organelles, Warren, K. B., ed., New York, Academic Press, Inc., pp. 219–232.Google Scholar
  94. Grimstone, A. V. and A. Klug. 1966. Observations on the substructure of flagellar fibers. J. Cell Sci., 1:351–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Harris, P. 1962. Some structural and functional aspects of the mitotic apparatus in sea urchin embryos. J. Cell Biol., 14:475–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Harris, P. 1965. Some observations concerning metakinesis in sea urchin eggs. J. Cell Biol. (Mitosis Supplement), 25:73–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hartmann, J. F., and A. M. Zimmerman. 1968. The isolated mitotic apparatus. Exp. Cell Res., 50:403–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Heddle, J. A., S. Wolff, D. Whissell, and J. E. Cleaver. 1967. Distribution of chromatids at mitosis. Science, 158:929–931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Henderson, S. A., and C. A. Koch. 1970. Co-orientation stability by physical tension: a demonstration with experimentally interlocked bivalents. Chromosoma, 29:207–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Henderson, S. A., R. B. Nicklas, and C. A. Koch. 1970. Temperature-induced orientation instability during meiosis: An experimental analysis. J. Cell Sci., 6:323–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Hepler, P. K., J. R. Mcintosh, and S. Cleland. 1970. Intermicrotubule bridges in the mitotic spindle apparatus. J. Cell. Biol., 45:438–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hiramoto, Y. 1969a. Mechanical properties of the protoplasm of the sea urchin egg. 1. Unfertilized egg. Exp. Cell Res., 56:201–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hiramoto, Y. 1969b. Mechanical properties of the protoplasm of the sea urchin egg. 2. Fertilized egg. Exp. Cell Res., 56:209–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hoffman-Berling, H. 1959. The role of cell structures in cell movements. In Cell, Organism and Milieu, Rudnick, D., ed., New York, Ronald Press, pp. 45–62.Google Scholar
  105. Hughes-Schrader, S. 1924. Reproduction in Acroschismus wheeleri (Pierce). J. Morph. 39:157–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hughes-Schrader, S. 1931. A study of the chromosome cycle and the meiotic division-figure in Llaveia bouvari-a. primitive coccid. Z. Zellforsch., 13:742–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hughes-Schrader, S. 1943. Polarization, kinetochore movements, and bivalent structure in the meiosis of male mantids. Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole), 85:265–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hughes-Schrader, S. 1969. Distance segregation and compound sex chromosomes in Mantispids (Neuroptera: Mantispidae). Chromosoma, 27:109–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Huxley, H. 1969. The mechanism of muscular contraction. Science, 164:1356–1366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Huxley, H. and J. Hanson. 1960. The molecular basis of contraction in cross-striated muscles. In The Structure and Function of Muscle, Bourne, G. H., ed., New York, Academic Press, Inc., Vol. l,pp. 183–227.Google Scholar
  111. Ichida, A. A., and M. S. Fuller. 1968. Ultrastructure of mitosis in the aquatic fungus Catenaria anguillulae. Mycologia, 60:141–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Inoué, S. 1952. The effect of cochicine on the microscopic and submicroscopic structure of the mitotic spindle. Exp. Cell Res., 2 (Suppl.):305–318.Google Scholar
  113. Inoué, S. 1959. Motility of cilia and the mechanism of mitosis. Rev. Mod. Phys., 31:402–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Inoué, S. 1960a. Polarizing microscope. Design for maximum sensitivity. In The Encyclopedia of Microscopy, Clark, G. L., ed., New York, Reinhold, pp. 480–485.Google Scholar
  115. Inoué, S. 1960b. On the physical properties of the mitotic spindle. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 90:529–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Inoué, S. 1964. Organization and function of the mitotic spindle. In Primitive Motile Systems in Cell Biology, Allen, R. D., and N. Kamiya, eds., New York, Academic Press, Inc., pp. 549–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Inoué, S. and A. Bajer. 1961. Birefringence in endosperm mitosis. Chromosoma, 12:48–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Inoué, S. and H. Sato. 1967. Cell motility by labile association of molecules. The nature of mitotic spindle fibers and their role in chromosome movement. J. Gen. Physiol., 50 (Suppl.):259–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Izutsu, K. 1959. Irradiation of parts of single mitotic apparatus in grasshopper spermatocytes with an ultraviolet-microbeam. Mie Med. J., 9:15–29.Google Scholar
  120. Jacob, F., S. Brenner, and F. Cuzin. 1963. On the regulation of DNA replication in bacteria. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 28:329–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Jacob, F., S. Brenner, A. Ryter, and F. Cuzin. 1966. On the association between DNA and membrane in bacteria. Proc. Roy. Soc. [Biol], 164:267–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Jacobs, M., and A. McVittie. 1970. Identification of the flagellar proteins of Chalamydomonas reinhardii. Exp. Cell. Res., 63:53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Jarosch, R. 1964. Screw-mechanical basis of protoplasmic movement. In Primitive Motile Systems in Cell Biology, Allen, R. D., and N. Kamiya, eds., New York, Academic Press, Inc., pp. 599–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Jenkins, R. A. 1967. Fine structure of division in ciliate protozoa. I. Micronuclear mitosis in Blepharisma. J. Cell. Biol., 34:463–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jensen, C, and A. Bajer. 1969. Effects of dehydration on the microtubules of the mitotic spindle. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 26:367–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. John, B., and K. R. Lewis. 1965. The meiotic system. Protoplasmatologia, 7, Wien, Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  127. Jokelainen, P. T. 1967. The ultrastructure and spatial organization of the metaphase kinetochore in mitotic rat cells. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 19:19–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kamiya, N. 1959. Protoplasmic streaming. Protoplasmatologia, vol.8, 3a, 1–199; Wien, Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  129. Kane, R. E. 1967. The mitotic apparatus. Identification of the major soluble component of the glycol-isolated mitotic apparatus. J. Cell Biol., 32:243–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kane, R. E. and A. Forer. 1965. The mitotic apparatus. Structural changes after isolation. J. Cell Biol., 25:31–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Kiefer, B., H. Sakai, A. J. Solari, and D. Mazia. 1966. The molecular unit of the microtubules of the mitotic apparatus. J. Molec. Biol., 20:75–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kilkson, R. 1966. The structure of evolution of chromosomes. J.Theor. Biol., 13:357–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Koehler, J. K. 1968. The technique and application of freeze-etching in ultrastructure research. Advances Biol. Med. Phys., 12:1–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Krishan, A., and Buck, R. C. 1965. Structure of the mitotic spindle in L strain fibroblasts. J. Cell Biol., 24:433–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kubai, D. F., and H. Ris. 1969. Division in the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium cohnii (Schiller). A new type of nuclear reproduction. J. Cell Biol., 40:508–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kushner, D. J. 1969. Self-assembly of biological structures. Bact. Rev., 33:302–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Lang, N. J. 1968. The fine structure of blue-green algae. Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 22:15–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lark, K. G. 1966. Regulation of chromosome replication and segregation in bacteria. Bact. Rev., 30:3–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lark, K. G. 1967. Nonrandom segregation of sister chromatids in Vicia faba and Triticum boeoticum. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 58:352–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Lark, K. G. 1969. Sister chromatid segregation during mitosis in polyploid wheat. Genetics, 62:289–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Lark, K. G. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  142. Lark, K. G. R. A. Consigli, and H. C. Minocha. 1966. Segregation of sister chromatids in mammalian cells. Science, 154:1202–1204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Leadbeater, B., and J. D. Dodge. 1967. An electron microscope study of nuclear and cell division in a dinoflagellate. Arch. Mikrobiol., 57:239–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Leak, L. V. 1967. Studies on the preservation and organization of DNA-containing regions in a blue-green alga, a cytochemical and ultra-structural study. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 20:190–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Leedale, D. E. 1968. The nucleus in Euglena.InThe Biology of Euglena, Buetow, D. E., ed., New York, Academic Press, Inc., Vol. 1, pp. 185–242.Google Scholar
  146. Lettré, H., and R. Lettré. 1960. Le mécanisme de la mitose, discuté a la lumière de l’hypothese de travail sur la persistance de la fibre fusorial du chromosome. Coll. Intern. Cen. Nat. Recher. Sci., 88:25–45.Google Scholar
  147. Lewis, M. R. 1934. Reversible solation of the mitotic spindle of living chick embryo cells studied in vitro. Arch. Exp. Zellforsch., 16:159–166.Google Scholar
  148. Lima-de-Faria, A. 1956. The role of the kinetochore in chromosome organization. Hereditas (Lund), 42:85–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Lima-de-Faria, A. 1958. Recent advances in the study of the kinetochore. Int. Rev. Cytol., 7:123–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Lindsley, D. L., and E. Novitski. 1958. Localization of the genetic factors responsible for the kinetic activity of X-chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics, 43:790–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Lowy, J., B. M. Millman, and J. Hanson. 1964. Structure and function in smooth tonic muscles of lamellibranch molluscs. Proc. Roy. Soc. [Biol.], 160:525–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Lu, B. C. 1967. Meiosis in Coprinus lagopus: A comparative study with light and electron microscopy. J. Cell Sci., 2:529–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Luykx, P. 1965a. The structure of the kinetochore in meiosis and mitosis in Urechis eggs. Exp. Cell Res., 39:643–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Luykx, P. 1965b. Kinetochore-to-pole connections during prometaphase of the meiotic divisions in Urechis eggs. Exp. Cell Res., 39:658–668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Lyser, K. 1968. An electron-microscope study of centrioles in differentiating motor neuroblasts. J. Embryol. Exp. Morph., 20:343–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Malawista, S. E., and H. Sato. 1969. Vinblastine produces uniaxial birefringent crystals in starfish oocytes. J. Cell Biol., 42:596–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Malawista, S. E., H. Sato, and K. G. Bensch. 1968. Vinblastine and griseofulvin reversibly disrupt the living mitotic spindle. Science, 160:770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Manton, I., K. Kowallik, and H. A. von Stosch. 1969a. Observations of the fine structure and development of the spindle at mitosis and meiosis in a marine centric diatom (Lithodesmium undulatum). I. Preliminary survey of mitosis in spermatogenesis. J. Micr., 89:295–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Manton, I., K. K. Kowallik, and H. A.von Stosch. 1969b. Observations of the fine structure and development of the spindle at mitosis and meiosis in a marine centric diatom (Lithodesmium undulatum). II. The early meiotic stages in male gametogenesis. J. Cell Sci., 5:271–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Manton, I., K. K. Kowallik, and H. A. von Stosch. 1970a. Observations on the fine structure and development of the spindle at mitosis and meiosis in a marine centric diatom (Lithodesmium undulatum). III. The later stages of meiosis I in male gametogenesis. J. Cell Sci., 6:131–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Manton, I., K. K. Kowallik, and H. A. von Stosch. 1970b. Observations on the fine structure and development of the spindle at mitosis and meiosis in a marine centric diatom (Lithodesmium undulatum). II. The early meiotic stages in male gametogenesis. J. Cell Sci., 7:407–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Mazia, D. 1956. Materials for the biophysical and biochemical study of cell division. Advances Biol. Med. Phys., 4:70–118.Google Scholar
  163. Mazia, D. 1961. Mitosis and the physiology of cell division. In The Cell, Brachet, J., and A. E. Mirsky, eds., New York, Academic Press. Inc., Vol. III, pp.77–412.Google Scholar
  164. Mazia, D. and A. M. Zimmerman. 1958. SH compounds in mitosis. II. The effect of mercaptoethanol on the structure of the mitotic apparatus in sea urchin eggs. Exp. Cell Res., 15:138–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Mcintosh, J. R. Personal communication.Google Scholar
  166. Mcintosh, J. R. and S. Landis. 1971. The distribution of spindle microtubules during mitosis in cultured human cells. J. Cell Biol., 49:468–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Mcintosh, J. R. and K. R. Porter. 1967. Microtubules in the spermatids of the domestic fowl. J. Cell Biol., 35:153–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Mcintosh, J., R. P. K. Hepler, and D. G. Van Wie. 1969. Model for mitosis. Nature (London), 224:659–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Metz, C. W. 1938. Chromosome behavior, inheritance and sex determination in Sciara. Amer. Natur., 72:485–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Miki, T. 1963. The ATPase activity of the mitotic apparatus of the sea urchin egg. Exp. Cell Res., 29:92–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Mole-Bajer, J. 1967. Chromosome movements in chloral hydrate treated endosperm cells in vitro. Chromosoma, 22:465–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Mole-Bajer, J. 1969. Fine structural studies of apolar mitosis. Chromosoma, 26:427–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Moor, H. 1967. Der Feinbau der Mikrotubuli in Hefe nach Gefrieratzung. Protoplasma, 64:7–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Nagai, R., and L. I. Rebhun. 1966. Cytoplasmic microfilaments in streaming Nitella cells. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 14:571–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Naville, A., and J. de Beaumont. 1933. Recherches sur les chromosomes des nevropteres. I. Arch. Anat. Micr., 29:199–243.Google Scholar
  176. Naville, A., and J. de Beaumont. 1936. Recherches sur les chromosomes nevropteres. II. Arch. Anat. Micr., 32:271–302.Google Scholar
  177. Neviackas, J. A., and L. Margulis. 1969. The effect of colchicine on regenerating membranellar cilia in Stentor coeruleus. J. Protozool., 16:165–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Nicklas, R. B. 1961. Recurrent pole-to-pole movements of the sex chromosome during prometaphase I inMelanoplus differentialis spermatocytes. Chromosoma, 12:97–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Nicklas, R. B. 1963. A quantitative study of chromosomal elasticity and its influence on chromosome movement. Chromosoma, 14:276–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Nicklas, R. B. 1965. Chromosome velocity during mitosis as a function of chromosome size and position. J. Cell Biol., 25 (Mitosis Suppl.):l 19–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Nicklas, R. B. 1966. A note on orientation in mitosis and meiosis. J. Theor. Biol., 12:147–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Nicklas, R. B. 1967. Chromosome micromanipulation. II. Induced reorientation and the experimental control of segregation in meiosis. Chromosoma, 21:17–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Nicklas, R. B. and C. A. Koch. 1969. Chromosome micromanipulation. III. Spindle fiber tension and the reorientation of mal-oriented chromosomes. J. Cell Biol., 43:40–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Nicklas, R. B. and C. A. Staehly. 1967. Chromosome micromanipulation I.The mechanics of chromosome attachment to the spindle. Chromosoma, 21:1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Novitski, E. 1967. Nonrandom disjunction in Drosophila.In Annual Review of Genetics, Roman, H. L., L. M. Sandler, and G. S. Stent, eds., Palo Alto, Annual Reviews, Vol. 1, p. 71–86.Google Scholar
  186. Ostergren, G. 1949. Luzula and the mechanism of chromosome movements. Hereditas (Lund), 35:445–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Ostergren, G. 1950. Considerations on some elementary features of mitosis. Hereditas (Lund), 36:1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Ostergren, G. 1951. The mechanism of co-orient at ion in bivalents and multivalents. Hereditas (Lund), 37:85–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Ostergren, G. J. Mole-Bajer, and A. Bajer. 1960. An interpretation of transport phenomena at mitosis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 90:381–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Paweletz, N. 1967. Zur Funktion des “Fleming-Korpers” bei der Teilung tierscher Zellen. Naturwissenschaften, 54:533–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Payne, F. 1912. The chromosomes of Gryllotalpa borealis. Arch. Zellforsch., 9:141–148.Google Scholar
  192. Payne, F. 1916. A study of the germ cells of Gryllotalpa borealis and Gryllotalpa vulgaris. J. Morph., 28:287–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Pease, D. C. 1941. Hydrostatic pressure effects upon the spindle fiber and chromosome movement. I. Experiments on the first meiotic division of Urechis eggs. J. Morph., 69:405–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Phillips, D. M. 1966. Substructure of flagellar tubules. J. Cell Biol., 31:635–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Pickett-Heaps, J. D. 1969a. Preprophase microtubule bands in some abnormal mitotic cells of wheat. J. Cell Sci., 4:397–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Pickett-Heaps, J. D. 1969b. Preprophase microtubules and stomatal differentiation; some effects of centrifugation on symmetrical and asymmetrical cell division. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 27:24–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Pickett-Heaps, J. D. 1969c. Preprophase microtubules and stomatal differention in Commelina cyanea. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 22:375–391.Google Scholar
  198. Pickett-Heaps, J. D. 1969d. The evolution of the mitotic apparatus: An attempt at comparative ultra structural cytology in dividing plant cells. Cytobios, 3:257–280.Google Scholar
  199. Pickett-Heaps, J. D. and L. C. Fowke, 1970. Cell division in Oedogonium. II. Nuclear division in O. cardiacum. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 23:71–92.Google Scholar
  200. Pickett-Heaps, J. D. and D. H. Northcote. 1966a. Organization of microtubules and endoplasmic reticulum during mitosis and cytokinesis in wheat meristems. J. Cell Sci., 1:109–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Pickett-Heaps, J. D. and D. H. Northcote. 1966b. Cell division in the formation of the stomatal complex of the young leaves of wheat. J. Cell Sci., 1:121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Piza, S. de T. 1946. Una nova modalidade de sexo-determina cana no crilo Sul-Americano Eneoptera surinamenis. An. Esc. Sup. Agric. “Luiz de Queiroz” (Piracicaba), 3:69–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Porter, K. R. 1966. Cytoplasmic microtubules and their functions. In Principles of Biomolecular Organization, Wolstenholme, G. E. W., and M. O’Connor, eds., London, J. & A. Churchill, pp. 308–356.Google Scholar
  204. Priest, J. H., and R. H. Shikes. 1970. Distribution of labeled chromatin. I. M1 and M2 anaphases of diploid and tetraploid cultured mammalian cells. J. Cell Biol., 47:99–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Rashevsky, N. 1941. Some remarks on the movement of chromosomes during cell division. Bull. Math. Biophys., 3:1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Rebhun, L. I. 1967. Structural aspects of saltatory particle movement. J. Gen. Physiol. 50 (Suppl.):223–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Rebhun, L. I. 1971. Polarized intracellular particle transport: saltatory movements and cytoplasmic streaming. Intern. Rev. Cytol., in press.Google Scholar
  208. Rebhun, L. I. and G. Sander. 1967. Ultra structure and birefringence of the isolated mitotic apparatus of marine eggs. J. Cell Biol., 34:859–883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Rebhun, L. I. and N. Sawada. 1969. Augmentation and dispersion of the in vivo mitotic apparatus of living marine eggs. Protoplasma, 68:1–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Renaud, F. L., A. J. Rowe, and I. R. Gibbons. 1966. Some properties of the protein forming the outer fibers of cilia. J. Cell Biol., 31:92a (abstr.).Google Scholar
  211. Renaud, F. L., A. J. Rowe, and I. R. Gibbons. 1968. Some properties of the protein forming the outer fibers of cilia. J. Cell Biol., 36:79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Rhoades, M. M. 1961. Meiosis. In The Cell, Brachet, J., and A. E. Mirsky, eds., New York, Academic Press, Inc., Vol. III, pp. 1–75.Google Scholar
  213. Rhoades, M. M. and E. Dempsey. 1966. The effect of abnormal chromosome 10 on preferential segregation and crossing over in maize. Genetics, 53:989–1020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Ringo, D. L. 1967. The arrangement of subunits in flagellar fibers. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 17:266–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Ris, H. 1949. The anaphase movement of chromosomes in the spermatocytes of the grasshopper. Biol. Bull., (Woods Hole), 96:90406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Ris, H. 1955. Cell Division. In Analysis of Development, Willier, B. H., P. A. Weiss, and V. Hamburger, eds., Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co., pp. 91–125.Google Scholar
  217. Robbins, E., and N. K. Gonatas. 1964a. The ultrastructure of a mammalian cell during the mitotic cycle. J. Cell Biol., 21:429–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Ris, H. and N. K. Gonatas. 1964b. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies of HeLa cell cultures exposed to spindle inhibitors with special reference to the interphase cell. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 12:704–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Ris, H., G. Jentzsch, and A. Micali. 1968. The centriole cycle in synchronized HeLa cells. J. Cell Biol., 36:329–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Robinow, C. F., and J. Marak. 1966. A fiber apparatus in the nucleus of the yeast cell. J. Cell Biol., 29:129–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Robison, W. G. 1966. Microtubules in relation to the motility of a sperm syncytium in an armored scale insect. J. Cell Biol., 29:251–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Robison, W. G. Rosenbaum, J. L., and K. Carlson. 1969. Cilia regeneration in Tetrahymena and its inhibition by colchicine. J. Cell Biol., 40:415–425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Robison, W. G., J. E. Moulder, and D. L. Ringo. 1969. Flagellar elongation and shortening in Chlamydomonas. The use of cycloheximide and colchicine to study the synthesis and assembly of flagellar proteins. J. Cell Biol., 41:600–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Rosenberger, R. F., and M. Kessel. 1968. Nonrandom sister chromatid segregation and nuclear migration in hyphae of Aspergillus nidulans. J. Bact., 96:1208–1213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Ross, A. 1968. The substructure of centriole subfibers. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 23:537–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Ross, J. and W. G. Robison. 1969. Unusual microtubular patterns and three-dimensional movement of mealybug sperm and sperm bundles. J. Cell Biol., 40:426–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Roth, L. E. 1967. Electron microscopy of mitosis in amebae. III. Cold and urea treatments: A basis for tests of direct effects of mitotic inhibitors on microtubular formation. J. Cell Biol., 34:47–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Roth, L. E. and E. W. Daniels. 1962. Electron microscope studies of mitosis in amebae. I. The giant ameba Pelomyxa carolinensis. J. Cell Biol., 12:57–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Roth, L. E., H. J. Wilson, and J. Chakraborty. 1966. Anaphase structure in mitotic cells typified by spindle elongation. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 14:460–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Ryter, A. 1968. Association of the nucleus and the membrane of bacteria: A morphological study. Bact. Rev., 32:39–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Sabnis, D. D., and W. P. Jacobs. 1967. Cytoplasmic streaming and microtubules in the coenocytic marine alga, Caulerpa prolifera. J. Cell Sci, 2:465–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Sakai, H. 1966. Studies of sulfhydryl groups during cell division of sea-urchin eggs. VIII. Some properties of mitotic apparatus proteins. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 112:132–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Satir, P. 1968. Studies on cilia. III. Further studies on the cilium tip and a “sliding filament” model of ciliary motility. J. Cell Biol., 39:77–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Sato, H. 1969. Analysis of the form birefringence in the mitotic spindle. Amer. Zool., 9:592 (abstr.).Google Scholar
  235. Sato, H. and J. Bryan. 1968. Kinetic analysis of association-dissociation reaction in the mitotic spindle. J. Cell Biol., 39:118a (abstr.).Google Scholar
  236. Schrader, F. 1934. On the reality of spindle fibers. Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole), 67:519–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Schrader, F. 1935. Notes on the mitotic behavior of long chromosomes. Cytologia (Tokyo), 6:422–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Schrader, F. 1936. The kinetochore or spindle fiber locus in Amphiuma tridactylum. Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole), 70:484498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Schrader, F. 1939. The structure of the kinetochore at meiosis. Chromosoma, 1:230–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Schrader, F. 1953. Mitosis, 2nd ed., New York, Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  241. Schwartz, D. personal communication.Google Scholar
  242. Scott, A. C. 1936. Haploidy and aberrent spermatogenesis in a coleopteran, Micromalthus debilis Le Conte. J. Morph., 59:485–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Shelanski, M. L., and E. W. Taylor. 1967. Isolation of a protein subunit from microtubules. J. Cell Biol., 34:549–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Shelanski, M. L., and E. W. Taylor. 1968. Properties of the protein subunit of central-pair and outer-doublet microtubules of sea urchin flagella. J. Cell Biol., 38:304–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Shimakura, K. 1957. The chromosome movements during the spindle formation as observed in the living spermatocytes of some grasshoppers. Proceedings of the International Genetics Symposium 1956; Cytologia (Tokyo), (Suppl.), 126–128.Google Scholar
  246. Shimamura, T. 1940. On the mechanism of nuclear division and chromosome arrangement. VI. Studies on the effect of the centrifugal force upon nuclear division. Cytologia (Tokyo), 11:186–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Silver, M. D., and J. E. McKinstry. 1967. Morphology of microtubules in rabbit platelets. Z. Zellforsch., 81:12–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Sisken, J. E., and T. Iwasaki. 1969. The effects of some amino acid analogs on mitosis and the cell cycle. Exp. Cell Res., 55:161–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Sisken, J. E., and E. Wilkes. 1967. The time of synthesis and the conservation of mitosis-related proteins in cultured human amnion cells. J. Cell Biol., 34:97–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Smith, D. W., and P. C. Hanawalt. 1967. Properties of the growing point region in the bacterial chromosome. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 149:519–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Snyder, R. W., and F. E. Young. 1969. Association between the chromosome and the cytoplasmic membrane in Bacillus subtilis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 35:354–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Staiger, H. 1954. Der Chromosomendimorphismus beim Prosobranchier Purpura lapillus in Beziehung zur Ökologie der Art. Chromosoma, 6:419–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Stephens, R. E. 1967. The mitotic apparatus. Physical chemical characterization of the 22S protein component and its sub units. J. Cell Biol., 32:255–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Stephens, R. E. 1968a. On the structural protein of flagellar outer fibers. J. Molec. Biol., 32:277–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Stephens, R. E. 1968b. Reassociation of microtubule protein. J. Molec. Biol., 33:517–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Stephens, R. E. 1969. Factors influencing the polymerization of outer fibre microtubule protein. Quart. Rev. Biophys., 1:377–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Stephens, R. E. 1970. Thermal fractionation of outer fiber doublet microtubules into A-and B- subfiber components: A- and B-Tubulin. J. Molec. Biol., 47:353–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Stephens, R. E. and R. W. Linck. 1969. A comparison of muscle actin and ciliary microtubule protein in the mollusk Pecten irradians. J. Molec. Biol., 40:497–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Stephens, R. E. F. L. Renaud, and I. R. Gibbons. 1967. Guanine nucleotide associated with the protein of the outer fibers of flagella and cilia. Science, 156:1606–1608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Stich, H. 1954. Stoffe und Stromungen in der Spindle von Cyclops strenuus. Chromosoma, 6:199–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Stubblefield, E., and B. R. Brinkley. 1967. Architecture and function of the mammalian centriole. In Formation and Fate of Cell Organelles, Warren, K. B., ed., New York, Academic Press, Inc., pp. 175–218.Google Scholar
  262. Subirana, J. A. 1968. Role of spindle microtubules in mitosis. J. Theor. Biol., 20:117–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Sueoka, N., and W. G. Quinn. 1968. Membrane attachment of the chromosome replication origin in Bacillus subtilis. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 33:695–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Takeda, S., and K. Izutsu. 1960. Partial irradiation of individual mitotic cells with ultraviolet microbeam. Symp. Cell. Chem., 10:245–262.Google Scholar
  265. Taylor, E. W. 1965a. Brownian and saltatory movements of cytoplasmic granules and the movement of anaphase chromosomes. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Rheology (1963), Copley, A. L., ed., New York, Interscience, Part 4, Symposium on Biorheology, pp. 175–191.Google Scholar
  266. Taylor, E. W. 1965b. The mechanism of colchicine inhibition of mitosis. I. Kinetics of inhibition and the binding of H3-colchicine. J. Cell Biol., 25:145–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Tazawa, M. 1968. Motive force of the cytoplasmic streaming in Nitella. Protoplasma, 65:207–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Thornburg, W. 1967. Mechanisms of Biological motility. In Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Cole, A., ed., New York, Marcel Dekker, Vol. 1, pp. 11 All.Google Scholar
  269. Tilney, L. G. 1968. Ordering of subcellular units. The assembly of microtubules and their role in the development of cell form. Develop. Biol., 2 (Suppl.):63–102.Google Scholar
  270. Tilney, L. G. and B. Byers. 1969. Studies on the microtubules in Heliozoa. V. Factors controlling the organization of microtubules in the axonemal pattern in Echinosphaerium (Actinosphaerium) nucleofilum. J. Cell Biol.,43148–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Tilney, L. G. and J. R. Gibbins. 1968. Differential effects of antimitotic agents on the stability and behavior of cytoplasmic and ciliary microtubules. Protoplasma, 65:167–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Tilney, L. G. and J. R. Gibbins. 1969. Microtubules in the formation and development of the primary mesenchyme in Arbacia punctulata. II. An experimental analysis of their role in development and maintenance of cell shape. J. Cell Biol., 41:227–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Tilney, L. G. and J. Goddard. 1970. Nucleating sites for the assembly of cytoplasmic microtubules in the ectodermal cells of flastulae of Arbacia punctulata. J. Cell Biol., 46:564–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Travers, A. A., and R. R. Burgess. 1969. Cyclic re-use of the RNA polymerase sigma factor. Nature (London), 222:537–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Tremblay, G. Y., M. J. Daniels, and M. Schaechter. 1969. Isolation of a cell membrane-DNA-nascent RNA complex from bacteria. J. Molec. Biol., 40:65–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Tucker, J. B. 1967. Changes in nuclear structure during binary fission in the ciliate Nassula. J. Cell Sci., 2:481–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Tucker, J. B. 1968. Fine structure and function of the cytopharyngeal basket in the ciliate Nassula. J. Cell Sci., 3:493–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Tucker, J. B. 1970. Initiation and differentiation of microtubule patterns in the ciliate Nassula. J. Cell Biol., 7:793–821.Google Scholar
  279. Turner, F. R. 1968. An ultrastructural study of plant spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis in Nitella. J. Cell Biol., 37:370–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Virkki, N. 1967. Orientation and segregation of asynaptic multiple sex chromosomes in the male Omophoita clerica Erichson (Coleoptera:Alticidae). Hereditas (Lund), 57:275–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Virkki, N. 1968. A chiasmate sex quadrivalent in the male of an alticid beetle, Cyrsylus volkameriae. Canad. J. Genet. Cytol., 10:898–907.Google Scholar
  282. Virkki, N. 1970. Sex chromosomes and karyotypes of the Alticidae (Coleoptera). Hereditas (Lund), 64:267–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Walne, P. L. 1967. The effects of colchicine on cellular organization in Chlamydomonas. II. Ultrastructure. Amer. J. Bot., 54:564–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Warren, R. H. 1968. The effect of colchicine on myogenesis in vivo in Rana pipiens and Rhodniu prolixus (Hemiptera). J. Cell Biol., 39:544–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Wassermann, F. 1929. Wachstum und Vermehrung der Lebendigen Masse. In Handbuch der Mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen, Mollendorff, W., ed., Berlin, Julius Springer, Vol. 1, Part 2, pp. 1–807.Google Scholar
  286. Weisenberg, R. C, and E. W. Taylor. 1968. Studies on the ATPase activity of sea urchin eggs and the isolated mitotic apparatus. Exp. Cell Res., 53:372–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Weisenberg, R. C, G. G. Borisy, and E. W. Taylor, 1968. The colchicine-binding protein of mammalian brain and its relation to microtubules. Biochemistry, 7:4466–4479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Went, H. A. 1966. The behavior of centrioles and the structure and formation of the achromatic figure. In Protoplasmatologia, Wein, Springer-Verlag, Vol. VI, G. 1.Google Scholar
  289. White, M. J. D. 1941. The evolution of the sex chromosomes. I. The XO and X1 X2 Y mechanisms in praying mantids. J. Genet., 42:143–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. White, M. J. D. 1951. Cytogenetics of orthopteroid insects. Advances Genet., 4:267–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. White, M. J. D. 1961. Cytogenetics of the grasshopper Moraba scurra. VI. A spontaneous pericentric inversion. Aust. J. Zool., 9:784–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Wilson, H. J. 1968. The fine structure of the kinetochore in meiotic cells of Tradescantia. Planta (Berlin), 78:379–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Wilson, H. J. 1969. Arms and bridges on microtubules in the mitotic apparatus. J. Cell Biol., 40:854–859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Wilson, L., and M. Friedkin. 1967. The biochemical events of mitosis. II. The in vivo and in vitro binding of colchicine in grasshopper embryos and its possible relation to inhibition of mitosis. Biochemistry, 6:3126–3135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Wilt, F. H., H. Sakai, and D. Mazia. 1967. Old and new protein in the formation of the mitotic apparatus in cleaving sea urchin eggs. J. Molec. Biol., 27:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Wisniewski, H., M. L. Shelanski, and R. D. Terry. 1968. Effects of mitotic spindle inhibitors on neurotubules and neurofilaments in anterior horn cells. J. Cell Biol., 38:224–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Wolpert, L. 1965. Cytoplasmic streaming and amoeboid movement. Symp. Soc. Gen. Microbiol., 15:270–293.Google Scholar
  298. Wolstenholme, G. E. W., and M. O’Connor, eds., 1966. Principles of Biomolecular Organization, London, J. & A. Churchill.Google Scholar
  299. Yamamoto, M. 1964. The effect of centrifugal force on the spermatocyte of grasshopper with special reference to the structure of the spindle and the formation of the furrow. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ. Ser. IV, (Biol.), 30:171–178.Google Scholar
  300. Yanagisawa, T., S. Hasegawa, and H. Mohri. 1968. The bound nucleotides of the isolated microtubules of sea-urchin sperm flagella and their possible role in flagellar movement. Exp. Cell Res., 52:86–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Yarus, M. 1969. Recognition of nucleotide sequences. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 38:841–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Bruce Nicklas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations