Advertisement

Strong Adhesion of Dust Particles

  • Richard Williams
  • Richard W. Nosker

Abstract

Dust particles lead to wear and damage in fine mechanical systems and to yield losses in the manufacture of electronic components. We have found experimentally that most of the damage is due to a relatively small fraction of the dust particles present. Many cases involve composite particles that become much more strongly adherent after cyclic changes in relative humidity and deliquescence. Water condenses around the water-soluble part of a composite particle. The water-soluble particle then dissolves. The solution wets both the substrate and the undissolved part of the composite. Later, when the relative humidity decreases, the soluble material recrystallizes, forming a strong bond between particle and substrate. A bond of this kind is much stronger than the original because the interfacial contact area has greatly increased. In many cases a particle cemented to the surface in this way cannot be removed without damage to the substrate. The right combination of soluble and insoluble components is found in only a small fraction of all dust particles. These cause most of the damage. We analyze the physical chemistry of the strong adhesion process and show the conditions under which it can take place.

Keywords

Dust Particle Composite Particle Dust Sample Strong Adhesion Salt Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J.R. Clemens, RCA Review, 39, 33 (1978)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.L. Ross, RCA Review, 39, 136 (1978)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.W. Nosker, L.A. DiMarco, and R. Williams, Appl.Phys.Lett., 38, 1023 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.Williams and R.W. Nosker, CHEMTECH, 15, 434 (1985)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.D. Zimon,“Adhesion of Dust and Powder”, Plenum Press, New York, 1969Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Corn, J.Air Pollution Control Assoc., 11, 523 1961Google Scholar
  7. 6a.
    M Corn, J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 11, 563 (1961)Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    S. Bhattacharya and K.L. Mittal, Surf. Technol., 2, 413 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    R.A. Bowling, J. Electrochem. Soc., 121, 2208 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    W.J. Whitfield in “Surface Contamination; Genesis, Detection, and Control”K.L. Mittal, Editor, Vol. 1, pp73–81, Plenum Press, New York (1979)Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    H.R. Pruppacher and J.D. Klett, “Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation”pp 83–85, D. Reidel Publishing Co., Boston (1980)Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    J.J. Geraghty, D.W. Miller, F. Nan der Leeden, and F.L. Troise, “Water Atlas of the United States”, plate 66, Water Information Center Publiocation, Port Washington, New York (1973)Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Reference 10, pp 194–197Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    W, Lockeretz, American Scientist 66 560 (1978)Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    J.M. Prospero, R.A. Claccum, and R.T. Nees, Nature, 289, 570 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    In-Young Lee, J. Climate Appl. Meteorol., 22 632 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    M.O. Andreae, R.C. Charlson, F. Bruyseels, H. Storms, R. Van Grieken, and W.Maenhut, Science, 232, 1620 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Williams
    • 1
  • Richard W. Nosker
    • 1
  1. 1.David Sarnoff Research CenterPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations