In Vitro Regeneration of Visual Pigment in Isolated Vertebrate Photoreceptors
By the addition of exosenous 11-cis retinal to bleached retina fragments in vitro, homolog pigments have been obtained in carp (Cyprinus carpio), clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) and mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus) rods and cones. In each case the 11-cis retinal spontaneously condensed with the available opsin in situ and thus produced rhodopsin-type homologs instead of the original porphyropsin-type chromo-proteins. Visual pigments were identified by microspectrophotometry in side-on oriented and optically isolated cells. It was found that rod and cone outer segments can soak up large quantities of 11-cis retinal. From these stores visual pigments are spontaneously generated even after repeated bleaches. Cones under identical conditions regenerate their homologous visual pigments 2.5 to 3-fold faster than rods.
KeywordsVisual Pigment Linear Dichroism Cone Pigment Dichroic Ratio Bleaching Exposure
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