Type I superstrings are supersyrametrical open strings whose massless modes belong to the adjoint representation of a Yang-Mills gauge group and singlet closed strings. The interacting theory in ten dimensions is free from ghosts and tachyons and is (at least) one-loop renormalizable. Type II superstrings are supersymmetrical closed strings only. The interacting theory in ten dimensions is also free from ghosts and tachyons and is (at least) one-loop finite. By compactifying six dimensions and letting the radii and Regge slope approach zero, one obtains N = 4 Yang-Mills theory as a limit of theory I and N = 8 supergravity as a limit of theory II. A power-counting argument suggests that N = 4 Yang-Mills theory should be ultraviolet finite to all orders, whereas N = 8 supergravity should have ultraviolet divergences starting at three loops.
KeywordsOpen String Effective Field Theory Tree Amplitude Loop Amplitude Massless Vector
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