Since the introduction of ascorbic acid as an antiviral and antibacterial agent (Klenner, 1951; McCormick, 1952; Klenner, 1974) interest has focused on the possible immunologic mechanisms involved in its protective effect. The role of ascorbic acid in the immune response is reviewed here with regard to cellular and humoral functions, and experiments pertaining to the role of ascorbic acid in autoimmunity and anaphylaxis are discussed.
- Ascorbic Acid
- Spleen Weight
- Dehydroascorbic Acid
- Total Vitamin
- Ascorbate Free Radical
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Anderson, R. (1979) Effects of ascorbate on leukocytes. II. Effects of ascorbic acid and calcium and sodium ascorbate on neutrophil phagocytosis and post-phagocytic metabolic activity. South African Med. J. 56: 401–404.
Anderson, R., and Theron, A. (1979) Effects of ascorbate on leukocytes. I. Effects of ascorbate on neutrophil motility and intracellular cyclic nucleotide levels in vitro. South African Med. J. 56: 394–400.
Anderson, R., Oosthuizen, R., Maritz, R., Theron, A., and Van Rensburg, A. J. (1980) The effects of increasing weekley doses of ascorbate on certain cellular and humoral immune functions in normal volunteers. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33: 71–76.
Anthony, L. E., Kurahara, C. G., and Taylor, K. B. (1979) Cell-mediated cytotoxicity and humoral immune response in ascorbic acid-deficient guinea pigs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 1691–1698.
Atherton, J. G., Kratzing, C. C., and Fisher, A. (1978) The effect of ascorbic acid on infection of chick-embryo ciliated tracheal organ cultures by Coronavirus. Arch. Virology 56: 195–199.
Baehner, R. L., Boxer, L. A., Allen, J. M., and Davis, J. (1977) Autooxidation as a basis for altered function by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Blood 50: 327–335.
Baird, I. M., Hughes, R. E., Wilson, H. K., Davies, J. E. W., and Howard, A. N. (1979) The effect of ascorbic acid and flavonoids on the occurrence of symptoms normally associated with the common cold. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 1686–1690.
Banic, S. (1975) Prevention of rabies by vitamin C. Nature 258: 153–154.
Bates, C. J., Levene, C. I., Oldroyd, R. S., and Lachmann, P. J. (1978) Complement component Clq is insensitive to acute vitamin C deficiency in guinea pigs. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 540: 423–430.
Boxer, L. A., Watanabe, A. M., Rister, M., Besch, H. R., Allen, J., and Baehner, R. L. (1976) Correction of leukocyte function in Chediak-Higashi syndrome by ascorbate. New Engl. J. Med. 295: 1041–1045.
Chatterjee, I. B., Majumder, A. K., Nandi, B. K,, and Subramanian, N, (1975) Synthesis and some major functions of vitamin C in animals. Ann, N.Y. Acad. Sci. 258: 24–47.
Chatterjee, G. C., Majumder, P. K., Banerjee, S. K., Roy, R. K., and Rudrapal, D. (1975a) Relationships of protein and mineral intake to L-ascorbic acid metabolism, including considerations of some directly related hormones. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 258: 382–400.
Chretien, J. H., and Garagusi, V. F. (1973) Correction of corticosteroid-induced defects of polymorphonuclear neutrophil function by ascorbic acid. J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 14: 280–286.
Cottingham, E., and Mills, C. A. (1943) Influence of environmental temperature and vitamin deficiency on phagocytic functions. J. Immunol. 47: 493–502.
Csaba, B., and Toth, S. (1971) The effect of temperature and some mediator antagonists on anaphylactic shock in mice. Int. Arch, Allergy 40: 316–320.
Dawson, W., Starr, M. S., and West, G. B. (1966) Inhibition of anaphylactic shock in the rat by antihistamines and ascorbic acid. Br. J. Pharmac. Chemother. 27: 249–255.
DeChatelet, L. R., Cooper, M. R., and McCall, C. E. (1971) Stimulation of leukocyte hexose monophosphate shunt activity by ascorbic acid, Clin. Res. 19: 44.
DeChatelet, L, R., Cooper, M. R., and McCall, C. E, (1972) Stimulation of the hexose monophosphate shunt in human neutrophils by ascorbic acid: mechanism of action. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1: 12–16.
DeChatelet, L. R., McCall, C. E., Cooper, M. R., and Shirley, P. S. (1974) Ascorbic acid levels in phagocytic cells. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 145: 1170–1173.
Fessenden, R. W., and Verma, N. C. (1978) A time resolved electron spin resonance study of the oxidation of ascorbic acid by hydroxyl radical. Biophys. J. 24: 93–101.
Gallin, J. I., Elin, R. J., Hubert, R. T., Fauci, A. S., Kaliner, M. A., and Wolff, S. M. (1979) Efficacy of ascorbic acid in Chediak-Higashi syndrome: studies in humans and mice. Blood 53: 226–234.
Ganguly, R., Durieux, M. F., and Waldman, R. H, (1976) Macrophage function in vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29: 762–765.
Goetzl, E. J., Wasserman, S. I., Gigli, I., and Austen, K. F. (1974) Enhancement of random migration and chemotactic response of human leukocytes by ascorbic acid. J. Clin. Invest. 53: 813–818.
Imanaga, Y. (1955) Autooxidation of L-ascorbic acid and imidazole nucleus. I. The effects of imidazole derivatives on the autooxidation of L-ascorbic acid. J. Biochem. 42: 657–667.
Kalden, J. R., and Guthy, E. A. (1972) Prolonged skin allograft survival in vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs. Europ. Surg. Res. 4: 114–119.
Klenner, F. R. (1951) Massive doses of vitamin C and the virus diseases. J. Southern Med. and Surgery 103: 101–107.
Klenner, F. R. (1974) Significance of high daily intake of ascorbic acid in preventive medicine. J. Int. Academy of Preventive Medicine 1: 45–69.
Kumar, M., and Axelrod, A. E. (1969) Circulating antibody formation in scorbutic guinea pigs. J. Nutr. 98: 41–44.
Leibovitz, B. (1979) Ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation, and aging. Thesis submitted to the Department of Biology, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97201.
Leibovitz, B., and Siegel, B. V. (1980) Aspects of free radical reactions in biological systems: aging. J. Gerontology 35: 45–56.
Long, D. A. (1950) Ascorbic acid and the production of antibody in the guinea pig. Br. J. Exp. Pathology 31: 183–188.
Lowry, O. H., Lopez, J. A., and Bessey, O. A. (1945) The determination of ascorbic acid in small amounts of blood serum. J. Biol. Chem. 160: 609–615.
MacLennan, W. J., and Hamilton, J. C. (1976) The effect of leukocytosis on leukocyte ascorbic acid levels. Age and Aging 5: 43–48.
Matheisz, J. S., and Allen, J. C. (1979) Fatigue of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function associated with bacterial ingestion. Clin. Immunology and Immunopathology 12: 125–131.
McCall, C. E., DeChatelet, L., and Cooper, R. (1971) The effect of ascorbic acid on neutrophil bactericidal activity. Clin. Res. 19: 47.
McCormick, W. J. (1952) Ascorbic acid as a chemotherapeutic agent. Arch. Pediatrics 69: 151–155.
Morton, J. I., and Siegel, B. V. (1980) Stimulation of the reticuloendothelial system and autoimmunity. In Macrophages and Lymphocytes, part B (M. R. Escobar and H. Friedman, eds.), Plenum Press, N. Y., pp.307–315.
Mueller, P. S., Kies, M. W., Alvord, E. C., and Shaw, C. M. (1962) Prevention of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by vitamin C deprivation. J. Exp. Med. 115: 329–338.
Mueller, P. S., and Kies, M. W. (1962) Suppression of tuberculin reaction in the scorbutic guinea pig. Nature 195: 813.
Murata, A., Kitagawa, K., Saruno, R. (1971) Inactiviation of bacteriophages by ascorbic acid. Agr. Biol, Chem. 35: 294–296.
Murata, A., Kitagawa, K., Inmaru, H., and Saruno, R. (1972) Inactivation of single-stranded DNA and RNA phages by ascorbic acids and thiol reducing agents. Agr. Biol, Chem. 36: 2597–2599.
Murata, A., Oyadomari, R., Ohashi, T., and Kitagawa, K. (1975) Mechanism of inactivation of bacteriophage delta-A containing single-stranded DNA by ascorbic acid. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 21: 261–269.
Murphy, B. L., Krushak, D. H., Maynard, J. E., and Bradley, D. W. (1974) Ascorbic acid and its effects on parainfluenza type III virus infection in cotton-topped marmosets. Laboratory Animal Science 24: 229–232.
Nishikimi, M. (1975) Oxidation of ascorbic acid with superoxide anion generated by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 63: 463–468.
Nungester, W. J., and Ames, A. M. (1948) The relationship between ascorbic acid and phagocytic activity. J. Infect. Disease 83: 50–54.
Olsen, G. E., and Polk, H. C. (1977) In vitro effect of ascorbic acid on corticosteroid-caused neutrophil dysfunction. J. Surgical Res. 22: 109–112.
Oyanagui, Y. (1976) Inhibition of superoxide anion production in macrophages by anti-inflammatory drugs. Biochem. Pharmacol. 25: 1473–1480.
Pauling, L. (1976) Vitamin C and the common cold. Medical Tribune, March 24: 1–4.
Picatoste, F., Blanco, I., and Palacios, J. M. (1977) The presence of two cellular pools of rat brain histamine, J. Neurochem. 20: 735–737.
Prinz, W., Bortz, R., Bregin, B., and Hersch, M. (1977) The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on some parameters of the human immunological defense system. Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 47: 248–257.
Ramirez, I., Richie, E., Wang, Y. M., and Van Eys, J. (1979) The effect of L-ascorbic acid in vitro on lymphocyte reactivity to mitogens. Fed. Proc. 38: 763.
Robinson. A. B., Catchpool, J. F., and Pauling, L. (1975) Decreased white blood cell count in people who supplement their diet with L-ascorbic acid. IRCS Medical Science 3: 259.
Roe, J. H., and Kuether, C. A. (1943) The determination of ascorbic acid in whole blood and urine through the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivative of dehydroascorbic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 147: 399–407.
Rosen, H., and Klebanoff, S. J. (1979) Bactericidal activity of a superoxide anion-generating system. J. Exp. Med. 149: 27–39.
Salin, M. L., and McCord, J. M. (1975) Free radicals and inflammation. Protection of phagocytosing leukocytes by superoxide dismutase. J. Clin. Invest. 56: 1319–1323.
Schwerdt, P. R., and Schwerdt, C. E. (1975) Effect of ascorbicacid on Rhinovirus replication in WI-38 cells. Proc. Soc, Exp. Biol. Med. 148: 1237–1243.
Shilotri, P. G., and Bhat, K. S. (1977) Effect of mega doses of vitamin C on bactericidal activity of leukocytes. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 30: 1077–1081.
Siegel, B. V., and Morton, J. I. (1970) Autoimmune disease in New Zealand Black mice infected with Rauscher leukemia virus. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 45: 189–193.
Siegel, B. V. (1974) Enhanced interferon response to murine leukemia virus by ascorbic acid. Infect. Immunity 10: 409–410.
Siegel, B. V. (1975) Enhancement of interferon production by poly(rI) poly(rC) in mouse cell cultures by ascorbic acid. Nature 254:531:532.
Siegel, B. V., and Morton, J. I. (1977) Vitamin C and the immune response. Experientia 33: 393–395.
Siegel, B. V., and Leibovitz, B. (1979) Vitamin C in aging and cancer. Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 49 (suppl. 19): 9–24.
Smith, W. B., Shohet, S. B., Zagjeski, E., and Lubin, B. H. (1975) Alteration in human granulocyte function after in vitro incubation with L-ascorbic acid. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 258: 329–338.
Stankova, L., Gerhardt, N. B., Nage, L., and Bigley, R. H. (1975) Ascorbate and phagocyte function. Infect. Immunity 12: 252–256.
Tauber, A. I., Gabig, T. G., and Babior, B. M. (1979) Evidence for production of oxidizing radicals by the particulate superoxide-forming system from human neutrophils. Blood 53: 666–676.
Terezhalmy, G. T., Bottomley, W. K., and Pelleu, B. G. (1978) The use of water-soluble bioflavonoid-ascorbic acid complex in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology 45: 56–61.
Thurman, G. B., and Goldstein, A. L. (1979) Suppression of immunological responsivity in guinea pigs by ascorbic acid depletion. Fed. Proc. 38: 1173.
Valic, F., and Zuskin, E. (1973) Pharmacological prevention of acute ventilatory capacity reduction in flax dust exposure. Br. J. Industrial Med. 30: 381–384.
Vallance, S. (1977) Relationship between ascorbic acid and serum proteins of the immune system. Br. Med. J. 2: 437–438.
Weir, D. M. (1974) Handbook of Experimental Immunology, volume 3, Blackwell Scientific Publications, London.
Yonemoto, R. H., Chretien, P. B., and Fehniger, T. F. (1976) Enhanced lymphocyte blastogenesis by oral ascorbic acid. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncology Abstracts 17: 288.
Zannoni, V., Lynch, M., Goldstein, S., and Sato, P. (1974) A rapid micromethod for the determination of ascorbic acid in plasma and tissues. Biochemical Med. 11: 41–48.
Zuskin, E., Lewis, A. J., and Bouhuys, A. (1973) Inhibition of histamine-induced airway constriction by ascorbic acid. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 51: 218–226.
Zweiman, B., Schoenwetter, W. F., and Hildreth, E. A. (1966) The effect of the scorbutic state of tuberculin hypersensitivity in the guinea pig. I. Passive transfer of tuberculin hypersensitivity. J. Immunol. 96: 296–300.
Editors and Affiliations
Rights and permissions
© 1981 Plenum Press, New York
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Leibovitz, B., Siegel, B.V. (1981). Ascorbic Acid and the Immune Response. In: Phillips, M., Baetz, A. (eds) Diet and Resistance to Disease. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-9200-6_1
Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA
Print ISBN: 978-1-4615-9202-0
Online ISBN: 978-1-4615-9200-6
eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive