Heat Transfer in Microsphere Insulation in the Presence of a Gas

  • G. R. CunningtonJr.
  • C. L. Tien


Evacuated porous materials have seen wide use as cryogenic insulations for many years [1,2] and numerous studies [2–9] have addressed the technology of heat transport in these powder, fiber, foam and multilayer types of insulation. Although they are comprised of a wide variety of materials, the mechanisms of heat transfer by radiation and solid conduction within the media are well understood. However, when a fluid is present in the void spaces between and/or within particles the heat transport is less well defined, particularly at cryogenic temperatures and in the pressure range intermediate to free molecular and continuum regimes [10–12].


Heat Transfer Knudsen Number Solid Conduction Cryogenic Engineer Apparent Thermal Conductivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Scott, R. B., Cryogenic Engineering (Van Nostrand, New York, 1959).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fulk, M. M., Progress in Cryogenics, Vol 1 (1959) 65.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kropschot, R. H., Birmingham, B. W., Mann, D. B., “Technology of Liquid Helium,” NBS Monograph 111 (1968) 170.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaganer, M. G., Thermal Insulation in Cryogenic Engineering (IPST Press, Jerusalem, 1969).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Glaser, P. E., et al, Thermal Insulation Systems — A survey NASA SP-5027 (1967).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tien, C. L., Cunnington, G. R., Advances in Heat Transfer, Vol 9, (Academic Press, New York, 1973) 349–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Caren, R. P., Cunnington, G. R., Chem Eng Prog Sym Series 64, No. 87 (1968) 67.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tien, C. L., Cunnington, G. R., Cryogenics 12 (1972) 419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cropschot, R. H., Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 16 (1971) 104.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Masamune, S. and Smith, J. M., “Thermal Conductivity of Spherical Particles,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fwd., 2, (1963).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Luikov, A. V., et al, “Thermal Conductivity of Porous Systems,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 11 (1968).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ogniewicz, Y. and Yovanovich, M. M., “Effective Conductivity of Regularly Packed Spheres: Basic Cell Model with Constriction”, Paper 77–188 AIAA 15th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Los Angeles (Jan. 1977).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Parmley, R. T. and Cunnington, G. R., “Evacuated Load-Bearing High-Performance Insulation Study”, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc., NASA CR-135342, (Dec. 1977).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Purdue Research Foundation 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. R. CunningtonJr.
    • 1
  • C. L. Tien
    • 2
  1. 1.Lockheed Palo Alto Research LaboratoryPalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations