Skip to main content

Observations on Meiotic Chromosomes of the Male Mouse as a Test of the Potential Mutagenicity of Chemicals in Mammals

  • Chapter

Abstract

Falconer et al.(1) and Cattanach(2, 3) were the first to detect translocations in the F1 male offspring of animals given a chemical compound. The positive results obtained by these authors suggested that observation of meiotic chromosomes from treated males (spermatocyte test on the treated males) or from their male offspring (F 1 translocation test) might be a simple and demonstrative method to routinely test potential mutagenicity in mammals. Such studies were made possible by recent technical advances in methods of making meiotic preparations from mammalian testes which provide a large number of analyzable cells and allow the scoring of many cells per animal and per testis.

Keywords

  • Male Mouse
  • Meiotic Chromosome
  • Nitrogen Mustard
  • Mammalian Testis
  • Trans Location

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This work was supported by grants from the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique Fondamentale Collective.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4615-8972-3_2
  • Chapter length: 36 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4615-8972-3
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. D. S. Falconer, B. M. Slyzinski, and C. Auerbach, Genetical effects of nitrogen mustard in the house mouse, J. Genet. 51, 81–88 (1952).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. B. M. Cattanach, Induction of translocations in mice by triethylenemelamine, Nature 180, 1364–1365 (1957).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. B. M. Cattanach, The sensitivity of the mouse testis to the mutagenic action of triethylenemelamine, Z. Indukt. Abstammungs-Vererbungsl. 90, 1–6 (1959).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. A. Léonard, Radiation-induced translocations in spermatogonia of mice, Mutation Res. 11, 71–88 (1971).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. A. G. Searle, Chromosome damage and risk assessment, in “Proceedings IV International Congress of Human Genetics” (J. de Grouchy, F. J. G. Ebling, and I. W. Henderson, eds.) pp. 58–66, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  6. E. F. Oakberg, Duration of spermatogenesis in the mouse and timing of stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, Am. J. Anat. 99, 507–516 (1956).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Y. Clermont and E. Bustos-Obregon, Reexamination of spermatogonial renewal in the rat by means of seminiferous tubules mounted “in toto,” Am. J. Anat. 122, 237–248 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. E. F. Oakberg, A new concept of spermatogonial stem-cell renewal in the mouse and its relationship to genetic effects, Mutation Res. 11, 1–7 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. E. F. Oakberg, Spermatogonial stem-cell renewal in the mouse, Anat. Rec. 169, 515–532 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. C. Huckins, The spermatogonial stem cell population in adult rats, 1. Their morphology, proliferation and maturation, Anat. Rec. 169, 533–558 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. E. F. Oakberg, Duration of spermatogenesis in the mouse, Nature 180, 1137–1139 (1957).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. J. L. Sirlin and R. G. Edwards, Duration of spermatogenesis in the mouse, Nature 180, 1137–1138 (1957).

    Google Scholar 

  13. E. F. Oakberg and R. L. DiMinno, X-ray sensitivity of primary spermatocytes of the mouse, Internat. J. Radiation Biol. 2, 196–209 (1960).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. S. Kofman-Alfaro and A. C. Chandley, Meiosis in the male mouse. An autoradio-graphic investigation, Chromosoma (Berlin) 31, 404–420 (1970).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. A. Léonard and Gh. Deknudt, Persistence of chromosome rearrangements induced in male mice by X-irradiation of pre-meiotic germ cells, Mutation Res. 9, 127–133 (1970).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. A. Léonard and Gh. Deknudt, Rearrangements chromosomiques induits par les rayons X chez les souris de race AKR/TlAld, Experientia 22, 715 (1966).

    Google Scholar 

  17. E. P. Evans, M. F. Lyon, and M. Daglish, A mouse translocation giving a meta-centric marker chromosome, Cytogenetics 3, 159–166 (1967).

    Google Scholar 

  18. B. J. White and J. H. Tjio, A mouse translocation with 38 and 39 chromosomes but normal N.F., Hereditas 58, 284–296 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. C. E. Ford, Meiosis in mammals, in “Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics” (K. Benirschke, ed.) pp. 91–106, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  20. C.-C. Lin, W. S. Tsuchida, and S. A. Morris, Spontaneous meiotic chromosome abnormalities in male mice (Mus musculus), Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 13, 95–100 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. C. E. Ford and E. P. Evans, Origin of apparent polyploid spermatocytes in the mouse, Nature 230, 389–390 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. A. Léonard, Unpublished results (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  23. A. G. Searle, C. V. Beechey, E. P. Evans, C. E. Ford, and D. G. Papworth, iStudies on the induction of translocations in mouse spermatogonia, IV. Effects of acute gamma-irradiation, Mutation Res. 12, 411–416 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. P. G. Koller and G. A. Auerbach, Chromosome breakage and sterility in the mouse, Nature 148, 501–502 (1941).

    Google Scholar 

  25. P. C. Koller, Segmental interchange in mice, Genetics 29, 247–263 (1944).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. C. Auerbach, Unpublished data, Conclusions and comments of a workshop held in U.S.A. (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  27. J. Lejeune, B. Dutrillaux, and J. de Grouchy, Reciprocal translocations in human populations, a preliminary analysis, in “Human Population Cytogenetics” (P. A. Jacobs, W. H. Price, and P. Law, eds.) pp. 82–87, University Press, Edinburgh (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  28. C. E. Ford and J. L. Hamerton, A colchicine hypotonic citrate squash sequence for mammalian chromosomes, Stain Technol. 31, 247–251 (1956).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. S. Ohno, W. D. Kaplan, and R. Kinosita, Heterochromatic regions and nucleolus organizers in chromosomes of the mouse, Mus musculus, Exptl. Cell Res. 13, 358–364 (1957).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. M. C. Bunker, A technique for staining chromosomes of the mouse with Sudan Black B., Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 3, 355–360 (1961).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. C. E. Ford, Methods in human cytogenetics, in “Methodology in Human Genetics” (W. J. Burdette, ed.) pp. 227–259, San Francisco, Holden-Day (1962).

    Google Scholar 

  32. W. J. Welshons, B. H. Gibson, and B. J. Scandlyn, Slide processing for the examination of male mammalian meioti chromosomes, Stain Technol. 37, 1–5 (1962).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. H. Gardner and H. Punett, An improved squash technique for human male meiotic chromosomes: Softening and concentration of cells; mounting in Hoyer’s medium, Stain Technol. 39, 245–248 (1964).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. E. P. Evans, G. Breckon, and C. E. Ford, An air-drying method for meiotic preparations from mammalian testes, Cytogenetics 3, 289–294 (1964).

    Google Scholar 

  35. K. H. Rothfels and L. Siminovitch, An air-drying technique for flattening chromosomes in mammalian cells grown in vitro, Stain Technol. 33, 73–77 (1958).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. J. H. Tjio and T. T. Puck, Genetics of somatic mammalian cells. II. Chromosomal constitution of cells in tissue culture, J. Exptl. Med. 108, 259–268 (1958).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. C. E. Ford, The use of chromosome markers, in “Tissue Grafting and Radiation” (H. S. Micklem and J. F. Loutit, eds.) pp. 197–206, Academic Press, New York (1966).

    Google Scholar 

  38. K. Benirschke and L. E. Brownhill, Heterosexual cells in testes of chimeric marmoset monkeys, Cytogenetics 2, 331–341 (1963).

    Google Scholar 

  39. E. Schleiermacher, über den Einfluss von Trenimon und Endoxan auf die Meiose der männlichen Maus, Humangenetik 3, 134–155 (1966).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. D. L. Williams, A. A. Hagen, J. W. Runyan, and D. A. Lofferty, A method for the differentiation of male meiotic chromosome stages, J. Hered. 62, 17–22 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  41. C. E. Ford and E. P. Evans, Meiotic preparations from mammalian testes, in “Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics (K. Benirschke, ed.) pp. 461–464, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  42. E. M. Eicher, An air-drying procedure for mammalian male meiotic chromosomes, following softening in gluconic acid and cell separation by an ethanol-acetic mixture, Stain Technol. 41, 317–321 (1966).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. R. Meredith, A simple method for preparing meiotic chromosomes from mammalian testis, Chromosoma 26, 254–258 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. A. P. Dyban, An improved air-drying method for meiotic and mitotic chromosome preparation from mammalian testes, Tsitologiva 12, 687–690 (1970).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. S. H. Hoo and C. A. Bowles, A unique air-drying method for preparing metaphase chromosomes from the spermatogonial cells of rats and mice, Mutation Res. 13, 85–88 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. A. Léonard and Gh. Deknudt, Meiotic chromosome rearrangements induced in mice by irradiation of spermatogonial stages, Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 8, 520–527 (1966).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. A. Léonard and Gh. Deknudt, Relation between the X-ray dose and the rate of chromosome rearrangements in spermatogonia of mice, Radiation Res. 32, 35–41 (1967).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. A. Léonard and Gh. Deknudt, Chromosome rearrangements after low X-ray doses given to spermatogonia of mice, Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 10, 119–124 (1968).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. A. Léonard and Gh. Deknudt, Dose-response relationship for translocations induced by 2-irradiation in spermatogonia of mice, Radiation Res. 40, 276–284 (1969).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. A. Léonard and Gh. Deknudt, The rate of translocations induced in spermatogonia of mice by two X-irradiation exposures separated by varying time intervals, Radiation Res. 45, 72–79 (1971).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. N. V. Savkovic and M. F. Lyon, Dose response curve for X-ray induced translocations in mouse spermatogonia. I. Single doses, Mutation Res. 9, 407–409 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. E. P. Evans, C. E. Ford, A. G. Searle, and B. J. West, Studies on the induction of translocations in mouse spermatogonia. II. Effects of X-irradiation, Mutation Res. 9, 501–506 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. S. Muramatsu, W. Nakamura, and H. Eto, Radiation-induced translocations in mouse spermatogonia, Japan. J. Genet. 46, 281–283 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  54. G. B. Gerber and A. Léonard, Influence of selection, non-uniform cell population and repair in dose effect curves of genetic effects, Mutation Res. 12, 175–182 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. A. G. Searle, E. P. Evans, C. E. Ford, and B. J. West, Studies on the induction of translocations in mouse spermatogonia. I. The effects of dose rate, Mutation Res. 6, 427–436 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. A. G. Searle, E. P. Evans, and G. E. Ford, A comparison of cytological and geneti-cal observations on the yield of major chromosome rearrangements following irradiation of mouse spermatogonia, Ann. Human Genet. 29, 11 (1965).

    Google Scholar 

  57. C. E. Ford, A. G. Searle, E. P. Evans, and B. J. West, Differential transmission of translocations induced in spermatogonia of mice by irradiation, Cytogenetics 8, 447–470 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. A. Léonard and Gh. Deknudt, The sensitivity of various germ-cell stages of the male mouse to radiation induced translocations, Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 10, 495–507 (1968).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. A. Léonard, Differential radiosensitivity of germ-cells of the male mouse, Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 7, 400–405 (1965).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. L. B. Russell and C. L. Saylors, The relative sensitivity of various germ cell stages of the mouse to radiation-induced non-disjunction, chromosome losses and deficiencies, in “Repair from Genetic Damage” (F. H. Sobels, ed.) pp. 313–340, Pergamon Press, Oxford (1963).

    Google Scholar 

  61. M. F. Lyon and R. Meredith, Autosomal translocations causing male sterility and viable aneuploidy in the mouse, Cytogenetics 5, 335–354 (1966).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. A. G. Searle and C. V. Beechey, Unpublished information, cited in Ref. 2 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  63. A. G. Searle, Symposium on mammalian radiation genetics, Summary and synthesis (July 7-9, 1970), Mutation Res. 11, 133–147 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  64. B. M. Cattanach and C. E. Williams, A search for chromosome aberrations induced in mouse spermatogonia by chemical mutagens, Mutation Res. 13, 371–375 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. L. K. Ramaiya, The cytogenetic effect of N-nitrosoethyl-urea, hydroxylamine and X-rays on the germ-cells of male mice, Genetika 5(2), 74–86 (1969).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Z. Zudova and R. J. Sram, Effects of TEPA on the induction of chromosome rearrangements in spermatogonia of mice, EMS Newsletter 4, 41 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  67. E. Haas, Die Wirkung von Methotrexat auf die Spermatogenese der Maus, Dissertation, Heidelberg (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  68. E. Schleiermacher, Über den Einfuss von Trenimon und Endoxan auf die Meiose der männerlichen Maus. I. Methodik der Präparation und Analyse meiotischer Teilungen, Human genetik 3, 127–133 (1966).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. E. Schleiermacher, The activity of alkylating agents. II. Histological and cyto-genetic finding in spermatogenesis, in “Chemical Mutagenesis in Mammals and Man” (F. Vogel and G. Röhrborn, eds.) pp. 317–341, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  70. A. Léonard, Gh. Deknudt, and G. Linden, Failure to detect meiotic chromosome rearrangement in male mice given chemical mutagens, Mutation Res. 13, 89–92 (1971).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. N. Gilliavod and A. Léonard, Tests for mutagenic effects of chemicals in mice. I. Effects of mitomycin C on spermatogonia, Mutation Res. 13, 274–275 (1971).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. K. H. Baldermann, G. Röhrborn, and T. M. Schroeder, Mutagenitätsunter Suchungen mit Trypaflavin und Hexamethylentetramin am Sänger in vivo und in vitro, Humangenetik 4, 112–126 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. G. Jagiello and P. E. Polani, Mouse germ cells and LSD-25, Cytogenetics 8, 136–147 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. I. D. Adler, Cytogenetic investigations of mutagenic action of caffeine in premeiotic spermiogenesis in mice, Humangenetik 3, 82–83 (1966).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. I. D. Adler, The problem of caffeine mutagenicity, in “Chemical Mutagenesis in Mammals and Man” (F. Vogel and G. Röhrborn, eds.) pp. 383–403, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  76. I. D. Adler and G. Röhrborn, Cytogenetic investigation of meitotic chromosomes of male mice after chronic caffeine treatment, Humangenetik 8, 81–85 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. B. M. Cattanach and C. E. Pollard, Mutagenicity tests with cyclohexylamine in the mouse, Mutation Res. 12, 472–474 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. A. Léonard and G. Linden, Observations sur les propriétés mutageniques des cyclamates chez les mammiféres, C. R. Soc. Biol. 166, 468–470 (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  79. A. Léonard and G. Linden, Mutagenicity studies with aflatoxins in the mouse, In preparation (1973).

    Google Scholar 

  80. P. K. Datta, H. Frigger, and E. Schleiermacher, The effect of chemical mutagens on the mitotic chromosomes of the mouse, in vivo, in “Chemical Mutagenesis in Mammals and Man” (F. Vogel and G. Röhrborn, eds.) pp. 194–213, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  81. R. J. Sram, Z. Zudova, and V. Benes, Induction of translocations in mice by TEPA, Folia Biol. 16, 367–368 (1970).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. A. Léonard and J. H. Schröder, Induction of translocations by the treatment of mouse post-meiotic germ cells with MMS, In preparation (1973).

    Google Scholar 

  83. B. M. Cattanach, C. E. Pollard, and J. H. Issacson, Ethyl methanesulfonate-in-duced chromosome breakage in the mouse, Mutation Res. 6, 297–307 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. B. M. Cattanach, Genetical effects of caffeine in mice, Z. Vererbungsl. 93, 215–219 (1962).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. B. M. Cattanach and R. G. Edwards, The effects of triethylenemelamine on the fertility of male mice, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 67, 54–64 (1958).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. L. Fishbein, W. G. Flamm, and H. L. Falk, “Chemical Mutagens; Environmental Effects on Biological Systems,” 364 pp., Academic Press, New York and London (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  87. K. E. Hampel and H. Gerhartz, Strukturanomalien der Chromosomen menschlicher Leukozyten in vitro durch Triethylenmelamin, Exptl. Cell Res. 37, 251 (1965).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. H. Jackson and M. Bock, Effects of triethylenemelamine on the fertility of rats, Nature 175, 1037 (1955).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. M. Bock and H. Jackson, The action of triethylenemelanine on the fertility of male rats, Brit. J. Pharmacol. 12, 6 (1957).

    Google Scholar 

  90. A. W. Craig, B. W. Fox, and H. Jackson, Sensitivity of the spermatogenic process in the rat to radiomimetic drugs and X-rays, Nature 181, 353 (1958).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. B. M. Cattanach, A genetical approach to the effects of radiomimetic chemicals on fertility in mice, in “Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Reproductive System” (W. D. Carlson and F. X. Gassner, eds) pp. 415–426, Pergamon Press, Oxford, London, New York, Paris (1964).

    Google Scholar 

  92. A. J. Bateman, The induction of dominant lethal mutations in rats and mice by triethylenemelanine (TEM), Genet. Res. 1, 381–392 (1960).

    Google Scholar 

  93. S. S. Epstein and H. Schafner, Chemical mutagens in the human environment, Nature 219, 385–387 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. J. Moutschen, Differential sensitivity of mouse spermatogenesis to alkylating agents, Genetics 46, 291–299 (1961).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. G. Obe, Chemische Konstitution und mutagene Wirkung. V. Vergleichende Untersuchung der Wirkung von Athyleniminen auf menschliche Leukozyten-chromosomes, Mutation Res. 6, 467–471 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. W. Schmid, D. T. Arakaki, N. A. Breslau, and J. C. Culberston, Chemical mutagenesis, the Chinese hamster bone marrow as an in vivo test system. I. Cytogenetic results on basic aspects of the methodology, obtained with alkylating agents, Humangenetik 11, 103–118 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. D. T. Arakaki and W. Schmid, Chemical mutagenesis, the Chinese hamster bone marrow as an in vivo test system. II. Correlation with in vitro results on Chinese hamster fibroblasts and human fibroblasts and lymphocytes, Humangenetik 11, 119–131 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. G. Röhrborn, The activity of alkylating agents. I. Sensitive mutable stages in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, in” Chemical Mutagenesis in Mammals and Man” (F. Vogel and G. Röhrborn, eds.) pp. 294–316, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  99. T.-H. Chang and W. Klassen, Comparative effects of tretamine, tepa, apholate and their structural analogues on human chromosomes in vitro, Chromosoma 24, 314–323 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. R. J. Sram, V. Benes, and Z. Zudova, Induction of dominant lethals in mice by TEPA and HEMPA, Folia Biol. (Praha) 16, 407–416 (1970).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. R. J. Sram, Z. Zudova, V. Benes, and K. Symon, Induction of translocations in mice by TEPA, EMS Newsletter 3, 13–14 (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  102. F. E. Arrighi, T. C. Hsu, and D. F. Bersagel, Chromosome damage in murine and human cells following cytoxan therapy, Texas Rep. Biol. Med. 20, 545–549 (1962).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. M. Bauchinger and E. Schmid, Cytogenetische Veränderungen in weissen Blutzel-len nach Cyclophosphamidtherapie, Z. Krebsforsch. 72, 77–87 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. E. Schmid and M. Bauchinger, Chromosomenaberrationen in menschlichen Lymphozyten nach Endoxan. Stosstherapie gynäkologischer Tumoren, Deutsch. Med. Wschr. 93, 1149–1151 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. W. Schmid and G. R. Staiger, Chromosome studies on bone marrow from Chinese hamsters treated with benzodiazepine tranquillizers and cyclophosphamide, Mutation Res. 7, 99–108 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  106. M. Vrba, Wirkung von Endoxan auf die Chromosomen von HeLa-Zellen, Humangenetik 4, 362–370 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. A. Michaelis and R. Rieger, Interaction of chromatid breaks induced by three different radiomimetic compounds, Nature 199, 1014–1015 (1961).

    Google Scholar 

  108. P. K. Datta and E. Schleiermacher, The effects of cytoxan on the chromosomes of mouse bone marrow, Mutation Res. 8, 623–628 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. D. Brittinger, Die mutagene Wirkung von Endoxan bei der Maus, Humangenetik 3, 156–165 (1966).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  110. G. Röhrborn and F. Vogel, A search for dominant mutations in Fi progeny of male mice treated with Trenimone (triethyleneiminobenzoquinone-1, 4), Human Genet. 7, 43–50 (1969).

    Google Scholar 

  111. F. Kelly and M. Legator, Effect of N-methyl-N′-nitroso-N-nitrosoguanidine on the cell cycle and chromosomes of human embryonic lung cell, Mutation Res. 10, 237–246 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  112. U. H. Ehling, R. B. Cumming, and H. V. Mailing, Induction of dominant lethal mutations by alkylating agents in male mice, Mutation Res. 5, 417–428 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  113. M. Partington. and A. J. Bateman, Dominant lethal mutations induced in male mice by methyl methanesulfonate, Heredity 19, 191–200 (1964).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  114. M. Partington and H. Jackson, The induction of dominant lethal mutations in rats by alkane sulphoric esters, Genet. Res. 4, 333–345 (1963).

    Google Scholar 

  115. E. Gebhart, Zur Beeinflussung der Wirkung von Myleran auf menschliche Chromosomen durch L-Cystein, Mutation Res. 7, 254–257 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  116. T. C. Hsu and C. E. Somers, Effect of 5-bromodeoxyuridine on mammalian chromosomes, Proc. Mtl. Acad. Sci. 47, 396–403 (1961).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. M. M. Kaback, E. Saksela, and W. J. Mellmann, The effect of 5-bromodeoxyuridine on human chromosomes, Exptl. Cell Res. 34, 182–212 (1964).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  118. W. Engel, W. Krone, and U. Wold, Die Wirkung von Thioguanin, Hydroxylamin und 5-Bromdesoxyuridin auf menschliche Chromosomen in vitro, Mutation Res. 4, 353–368 (1967).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  119. A. B. Mukherjee, Effect of 5-bromodeoxyuridine on the male meiosis in Chinese hamsters (Cricetus griseus), Mutation Res. 6, 173–174 (1968).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  120. P. C. Nowell, Mitotic inhibition and chromosome damage by mitomycin in human leukocyte cultures, Exptl. Cell Res. 33, 445–449 (1964).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  121. M. M. Cohen and M. W. Shaw, Effects of mitomycin C on human chromosomes, J. Cell Biol. 23, 386–395 (1964).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  122. M. W. Shaw and M. M. Cohen, Chromosome exchanges in human leukocytes induced by mitomycin C., Genetics 51, 181–190 (1965).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  123. J. German and J. La Rock, Chromosomal effects of mitomycin, a potential recombinogen in mammalian cell genetics, Texas. Rep. Biol. Med. 27, 409–418 (1969).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  124. U. H. Ehling, Comparison of radiation-and chemically induced dominant lethal mutations in male mice, Mutation Res. 11, 35–44 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  125. M. Buchinger, Cytologische Untersuchungen zur intracellularen Verarbeitung verschiedenen, peroral verabreichter Fluorochrome in Epithelzellen des Magendarmtraktes sowie der Leber und Niere von Ratten, Inaugural Dissertation, Heidelberg (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  126. G. Buchinger, Die Wirkung von Trypaflavin allein und in Kombination mit sichtbarem Licht auf die Chromosomen von HeLa-Zellen und menschlichen Leukocyten, Human Genet. 7, 323–336 (1969).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  127. G. Buchinger, Mutagenicity experiments with mice and human cell cultures: Treatment with an acridine derivative (trypaflavin), in “Chemical Mutagenesis in Mammals and Man” (F. Vogel and G. Röhrborn, eds.) pp. 350–366, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  128. N. I. Dishotsky, W. D. Langhman, R. E. Mogar, and W. R. Lipscomb, LSD and genetic damage, Science 172, 431–440 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  129. N. E. Skakkeback, J. Philip, and O. J. Rafaelsen, LSD in mice: Abnormalities in meiotic chromosomes, Science 160, 1246–1248 (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  130. M. M. Cohen and A. B. Murkherjee, Meiotic chromosome damage induced by LSD-25, Nature 219, 1072–1074 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  131. M. Hulten, J. Lindsten, L. Lidberg, and H. Ekelund (1968), Studies on meiotic chromosomes in subjects exposed to LSD, Ann. Génét. 11, 201–205 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  132. C. F. Somers and T. C. Hsu, Chromosome damage induced by hydroxylamine in mammalian cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 48, 937–943 (1962).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  133. E. Borenfreund, M. Krim, and A. Bendich, Chromosomal aberrations induced by hyponitrite and hydoxylamine derivatives, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 32, 667–680 (1964).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  134. D. L. Williams, J. W. Runyan, and A. A. Hagen, Meiotic chromosome alterations produced by progesterone, Nature 220, 1145–1147 (1968).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  135. W. Sachsse and R. Denk, Chromosomenuntersuchungen aus Lymphocyten und Knochenmark von Psoriasis-Kranken nach Langzeitbehandlung mit Methotrexat, Arch. Klin. Exptl. Dermatol. 239, 275–281 (1970).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  136. J. F. Jackson, Chromosome aberrations in cultured human leukocytes treated with 8-ethoxycaffeine, J. Cell Biol. 22, 291–293 (1964).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  137. W. Ostertag, E. Duisberg, and M. Stürmann, The mutagenic activity of caffeine in man, Mutation Res. 2, 293–296 (1965).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  138. W. Ostertag, Kaffein-und Theophyllinmutagenese bei Zell-und Leukozytenkulturen des Menschen, Mutation Res. 3, 249–267 (1966).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  139. W. Ostertag and B. J. Greif, Die Erzugung von Chromatidenbrüchen durch Caffein in Leukozystenkulturen des Menschen, Humangenetik 3, 282 (1967).

    Google Scholar 

  140. W. Ostertag and J. Haake, The mutagenicity in Drosophila melanogaster of caffeine and of other compounds which produce chromosome breakage in human cell in culture, Z. Vererbungsl. 98, 299–308 (1966).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  141. L. I. Waissfeld, The effect of 8-ethoxycaffeine on the cells of embryonic mouse tissues in vitro, Genetika 7, 103–107 (1967).

    Google Scholar 

  142. B. A. Kihlman, G. Odmark, S. Sturelid, and K. Norlen, The relationship between intracellular ATP concentration and the frequency of chromatid aberrations induced by caffeine and 8-ethoxycaffeine in plant root tips and in cell cultures of the Chinese hamster, European Environmental Mutagen Society, Abstracts, First Annual Meeting (May 5–7, 1971), Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  143. M. F. Lyon, J. S. B. Phillips, and A. G. Searle, A Test for mutagenicity of caffeine in mice, Z. Vererbungsl. 93, 7–13 (1962).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  144. S. Epstein, The failure of caffeine to induce mutagenic effects or to synergize the effects of known mutagens in mice, in “Chemical Mutagenesis in Mammals and Man” (F. Vogel and G. Röhrborn, eds.) pp. 404–419, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  145. S. S. Epstein, W. Bass, E. Arnold, and Y. Bishop, The failure of caffeine to induce mutagenic effects or to synergize the effects of known mutagens in mice, Food Cosmet Toxicol. 8, 381–401 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  146. W. Kulman, H. G. Fromme, E. M. Heege, and W. Ostertag, The mutagenic action of caffeine in higher organisms, Cancer Res. 28, 2375–2383 (1968).

    Google Scholar 

  147. S. Stone, E. Lamson, Y. S. Chang, and K. W. Pickering, Cytogenetic effects of cyclamates on human cells in vivo, Science 164, 568–569 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  148. D. R. Stoltz, K. S. Khera, R. Bendall, and S. W. Gunner, Cytogenetic studies with cyclamate and related compounds, Science 167, 1501–1502 (1970).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  149. M. S. Legator, K. A. Palmer, S. Green, and K. W. Petersen, Cytogenetic studies in rats of cyclohexylamine, a metabolite of cyclamate, Science 165, 1139–1140 (1969).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  150. S. K. Majumdar and M. Solomon, Cytogenetic studies of calcium cyclamate in Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil) in vivo, Can, J. Genet. Cytol. 13, 189–194 (1971).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  151. J. G. Brewen, F. G. Pearson, K. P. Jones, and H. E. Luippold, Cytogenetic effects of cyclohexylamine and JV-OH-cyclohexylamine on human leucocytes and Chinese hamster bone marrow, Nature New Biol. 230, 15–16 (1971).

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  152. K. W. Petersen, F. H. J. Figge, and M. S. Legator, Dominant lethal effects of cyclohexylamine in C-57 mice, Mutation Res., in press (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  153. M. S. Legator and A. Withrow, Aflatoxin: Effect on mitotic division in cultured embryonic lung cells, J. Ass. Offic. Agr. Chemists 47, 1007–1009 (1964).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  154. D. A. Dolimpio, C. Jacobson, and M. Legator, Effect of aflatoxin on human leukocytes, Proc. Soc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 127, 559–562 (1968).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  155. R. F. J. Withers, The action of some lactones and related compounds on human chromosomes, in “Proceedings of the Symposium on the Mutational Process, Prague, 1965” (Z. Landas, ed.) Czechoslovakia Academy of Sciences, Prague (1965).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 1973 Plenum Press, New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Léonard, A. (1973). Observations on Meiotic Chromosomes of the Male Mouse as a Test of the Potential Mutagenicity of Chemicals in Mammals. In: Hollaender, A. (eds) Chemical Mutagens. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-8972-3_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-8972-3_2

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4615-8974-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4615-8972-3

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive