Programs of Gene Action and Progressive Evolution

  • Emile Zuckerkandl
Part of the Advances in Primatology book series (volume 62)


Structural genes and their products have captured much of the attention of a number of contributors to this volume on molecular anthropology. It seems to me that, in addition, we must not fail to discuss the role of gene regulation and of genetic regulatory networks in evolution, in particular with respect to conditions that paved the way to man.


Structural Gene Polypeptide Chain Gene Program Controller Gene Parallel Evolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abeloos, M., 1956, Les Métamorphoses, Collection Armand Collin, Paris.Google Scholar
  2. Ashburner, M., 1974, Sequential gene activation by ecdyson in polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. II. The effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis, Dev. Biol. 39: 141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashburner, M., Chihara, C., Meltzer, P., and Richards, G., 1973, Temporal control of puffing activity in polytene chromosomes, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 38: 655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beerman, W., ed., 1972a, Developmental Studies on Giant Chromosomes, Vol. 4 of Research Problems in Cell Differentiation, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  5. Beerman, W., 1912b, Chromomeres and genes, Res. Probl. Cell Differ. 4: 1.Google Scholar
  6. Berendes, H. D., 1968, Factors involved in the expression of gene activity in polytene chromosomes, Chromosoma 24: 418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berendes, H. D., 1972, The control of puffing in Drosophila hydei, Res. Probl. Cell Differ. 4: 181.Google Scholar
  8. Britten, R. J., and Davidson, E. H., 1969, Gene regulation for higher cells: A theory, Science 165: 349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calhoun, D. H., and Hatfield, G. W., 1973, Autoregulation: A role for a biosynthetic enzyme in the control of gene expression, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 2757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Church, R. B., and Brown, I. R., 1972, Tissue specificity of genetic transcription, Res. Probl. Cell Differ. 3: 11.Google Scholar
  11. Counce, S. J., 1973, in: Developmental Systems: Insects, Vol. II (S. J. Counce and C. H. Waddington, eds.), p. 133, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Davidson, E. H., and Britten, R. J., 1973, Organization, transcription, and regulation in the animal genome, Quart. Rev. Biol. 48: 565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dayhoff, M. O., Hunt, L. T., McLaughlin, P. J., and Jones, D. D., 1972, Gene duplications in evolution: The globins, in: Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure 1972, Vol. 5 ( M. O. Dayhoff, ed.), p. 17, National Biomedical Research Foundation, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  14. Derancourt, J., Lebor, A. S., and Zuckerkandl, E., 1967, Sequence des acides amines, sequence des nucléotides et évolution, Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol. 49: 577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dickerson, R. E., 1971, The structure of cytochrome c and the rates of molecular evolution, J. Mol. Evol. 1: 26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elder, D., 1973, A multiple promoter model for transcriptional control in differentiated organisms, J. Them-. Biol 39: 673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Englesberg, E., and Wilcox, G., 1974, Regulation: Positive control, Annu. Rev. Genet. 8: 219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Englesberg, E., Squires, C., and Meronk, F., 1969, The 1-arabinose operon in Escherichia coli B/r: A genetic demonstration of two functional states of the product of a regulator gene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 62: 1100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Falk, R., 1970, Evidence against the one-to-one correspondence between bands of the salivary gland chromosomes and genes, Drosophila Inform. Serv. 45: 112.Google Scholar
  20. Fitch, W. M., 1970, Distinguishing homologous from analogous proteins, Syst. Zool. 19: 99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fitch, W. M., 1976, Molecular evolutionary clocks, in: Molecular Evolution ( F.J. Ayala, ed.), p. 160, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  22. Fitch, W. M., and Markowitz, E., 1970, An improved method for determining codon variability in a gene and its application to the rate of fixation of mutations in evolution, Biochem. Genet. 4: 579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frazetta, T. H., 1975, Complex Adaptations in Evolving Populations, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.Google Scholar
  24. Gatlin, L. L., 1966, The information content of DNA, J. Theor. Biol. 10: 281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gatlin, L. L., 1974, Comments on papers by Reichert and Wong, J. Mol. Evol. 3: 233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Georgiev, G. P., 1969, On the structural organization of operon and the regulation of RNA synthesis in animal cells, J. Theor. Biol. 25: 473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goldberger, R. F., 1974, Autogenous regulation of gene expression, Science 183: 810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goodman, M., Moore, G. W., and Matsuda, G., 1975, Darwinian evolution in the genealogy of haemoglobin, Nature (London) 253: 603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grasse, P. P., 1973, L’Evolution du Vivant, Albin Michel, Paris.Google Scholar
  30. Hochman, B., 1973, Analysis of a whole chromosome in Drosophila, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol 38: 581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holmes, D. S., Mayfield, J. E., Sander, G., and Bonner, J., 1972, Chromosomal RNA: Its properties, Science 177: 72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Huisman, T. H. J., Wrightstone, P. N., Wilson, J. B., Schroeder, W. A., and Kendall, A. G., 1972, Hemoglobin Kenya, the product of fusion of γ and β polypeptide chains, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 153: 850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Htising, J. O., 1963, Die Metamorphose der Insekten, A. Ziemsen Verlag, Wittenberg.Google Scholar
  34. Huxley, J. S., 1942, Evolution, the Modern Synthesis, Allen and Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  35. Itano, H. A., 1957, The human hemoglobins: Their properties and genetic control, Adv. Protein Chem. 12: 215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jacob, F., and Monod, J., 1961, On the regulation of gene activity, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quart. Biol. 26: 193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jacobsen, L., 1968, Low Dose X-Irradiation and Teratogenesis, Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  38. Jagersten, G., 1972, Evolution of the Metazoan Life Cycle, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  39. Judd, B. H., Shen, M. W., and Kaufman, T. C., 1972, The anatomy and function of a segment of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, Genetics 71: 139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Jukes, T. H., and Holmquist, R., 1972, Evolutionary clock: Nonconstancy of rate in different species, Science 177: 530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kendall, A. G., Ojwang, P. J., Schroeder, W. A., and Huisman, T. H. J., 1973, Hemoglobin Kenya, the product of a γ-β fusion gene: studies of the family, Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 25: 548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kimura, M., 1968, Evolutionary rate at the molecular level, Nature (London) 217: 624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kimura, M., and Ohta, T., 1971, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.Google Scholar
  44. King, J. L., and Jukes, T. H., 1969, Non-Darwinian evolution, Science 164: 788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Korschelt, E., 1944, Ontogenie der Dekapoden, in: Bronn’s Thierreich, Vol. V (1, 7), p. 671, Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  46. Langridge, J., 1974, Mutation spectra and the neutrality of mutations, Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 27: 309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lanyon, W. G., Ottolenghi, S., and Williamson, R., 1975, Human globin gene expression and linkage in bone marrow and fetal liver, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lefevre, G., 1971, Salivary chromosome bands and the frequency of crossing over in Drosophila melanogaster, Genetics 67: 497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lewis, E. B., 1951, Pseudoallelism and gene evolution, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 16: 159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lewis, E. B., 1963, Genes and developmental pathways, Am. Zool. 3: 33.Google Scholar
  51. Lewis, M., Helmsing, P. J., and Ashburner, M., 1975, Parallel changes in puffing activity and patterns of protein synthesis in salivary glands of Drosophila, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 3604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lochhead, J. H., 1963, in: Phytogeny and Evolution of the Crustacea (H. B. Whittington and W. D. I. Rolfe, eds.), p. 109, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  53. Manning, J. E., Schmid, C. W., and Davidson, N., 1975, Interspersion of repetitive and nonrepetitive DNA sequences in the Drosophila melanogaster genome, Cell 4: 141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mayr, E., 1963, Animal Species and Evolution, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  55. Miller, J. H., Coulondre, C., Schmeissner, U., Schmitz, A, and Lu, P., 1975, Altered lac repressor molecules generated by suppressed nonsense mutations, Proceedings of the Tenth FEBS Meeting, Federation of European Biochemical Societies, p. 223.Google Scholar
  56. Monod, J., and Jacob, F., 1961, Teleonomic mechanisms in cellular metabolism, growth, and differentiation, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 26: 389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moriyama, Y., Hodnett, J. L., Prestayko, A. W., and Busch, H., 1969, Studies on the nuclear 4 to 7s RNA of the Novikoff hepetoma, J. Mol. Biol. 39: 335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ohno, S., 1973, Ancient linkage groups and frozen accidents, Nature (London) 244: 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Paul, J., Gilmour, R. S., Affara, N., Birnie, G., Harrison, P., Hell, A., Humphries, S., Windass, J., and Young, B., 1974, The globin gene: Structure and expression, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 38: 885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pauling, L., and Zuckerkandl, E., 1963, Chemical paleogenetics: Molecular restoration studies of extinct forms of life, Acta Chem. Scand. 17: S9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pelling, C., 1964, Ribonucleinsäure—Synthese der Riesenchromosomen, Chromosoma 15: 71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Petit, C., and Zuckerkandl, E., 1976, Evolution, Génétique des Populations, Evolution Moléculaire, Editions Hermann, Paris.Google Scholar
  63. Reichert, T. A., Yu, J. M. C., and Christensen, R. A., 1976, J. Mol Evol 8: 41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rensch, B., 1960, Evolution above the Species Level, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Romero-Herrera, A. E., Lehmann, H., Joysey, K. A., and Friday, A. E., 1973, Molecular evolution of myoglobin and the fossil record: A phylogenetic series, Nature (London) 246: 389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rosbash, M., Camp. M. S., and Gummerson, K. S., 1975, Conservation of cytoplasmic poly(A)-containing RNA in mouse and rat, Nature (London) 258: 682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rüssel, L. B., 1966, X-ray induced developmental abnormalities in the mouse and their use in the analysis of embryological patterns, J. Exp. Zool. 131: 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sallei, J. P., and Zuckerkandl, E., 1975, The in vitro cellular synthesis of hemoglobin components in various media and its relevance to the concept of stenogenic and eurygenic states of differentiation. Biochimie 57: 343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sanders, H. L., 1963, The Cephalocarida, Mem. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci 15: 1.Google Scholar
  70. Sarich, V. M., and Wilson, A. C., 1967, Rates of albumin evolution in primates, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 58: 142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sharov, A. G., 1966, Basic Arthropoden Stock, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  72. Shineberg, N., 1974, Mutations partially inactivating the lactose repressor of Escherichia coli, J. Bacterid, 119: 500.Google Scholar
  73. Siewing, R., 1963, in: Phylogeny and Evolution of the Crustacea (H. B. Whittington and W. D. I. Rolfe, eds.), p. 108, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  74. Simpson, G. G., 1953, The Major Features of Evolution, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Smith, G., 1909, The Crustacea, in: The Cambridge Natural History, Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  76. Smith, T. F., and Sadler, J. R., 1971, The nature of lactose operator constitutive mutations, J. Mol. Biol. 59: 273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stebbins, G. L., 1971, Processes of Organic Evolution, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  78. Tazima, Y., 1964, The Genetics of the Silkworm, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  79. Thompson, A. W., 1917, On Growth and Form, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  80. Vermeij, G. J., 1973, Biological versatility and earth history, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 1936.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Waddington, C. H., 1962, New Patterns in Genetics and Development, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Weber, K., Piatt, T., Ganem, D., and Miller, J. H., 1972, Altered sequences changing the operator-binding properties of the Lac repressor: Colinearity of the repressor protein with the i-gene map, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 69: 3624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Weinberg, R. A., and Penman, S., 1969, Metabolism of small molecular weight monodisperse nuclear RNA, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 190: 10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Whyte, L. L., 1965, Internal Factors in Evolution, Braziller, New York.Google Scholar
  85. Wigglesworth, V. B., 1954, The Physiology of Insect Metamorphosis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  86. Wilson, A. C., Maxson, L. R., and Sarich, V. M., 1974a, Two types of molecular evolution: Evidence from studies of interspecific hybridization, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 71: 2843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wilson, A. C., Sarich, V. M., and Maxson, L. R., 1974b, The importance of gene rearrangement in evolution: Evidence from studies on rates of chromosomal, protein, and anatomical evolution, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71: 3028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Woese, C. R., 1974, The custom fitting problem and the evolution of developmental systems, J. Mol. Evol. 3: 109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zuckerkandl, E., 1963, Perspectives in molecular anthropology, in: Classification and Human Evolution ( S. L. Washburn, ed.), p. 243, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  90. Zuckerkandl, E., 1964a, Controller gene diseases: The operon model as applied to β-thalassemia, familial fetal hemoglobinemia and the normal switch from the production of fetal hemoglobin to that of adult hemoglobin, J. Mol Biol 8: 128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zuckerkandl, E., 1964b, Further principles of chemical paleogenetics as applied to the evolution of hemoglobin, in: Protides of the Biological Fluids, 1964 ( H. Peeters, ed.), p. 102, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  92. Zuckerkandl, E., 1968, Hemoglobins, Haeckel’s biogenetic law, and molecular aspects of development, in: Structural Chemistry and Molecular Biology ( A. Rich and N. Davidson, eds.), p. 256, Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  93. Zuckerkandl, E., 1974, A possible role of “inert” heterochromatin in cell differentiation: Action of and competition for “locking” molecules, Biochimie 56: 937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zuckerkandl, E., 1975a, The appearance of new structures and functions in proteins during evolution, J. Mol. Evol. 7: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zuckerkandl, E., 1976b, Evolutionary processes and evolutionary noise at the molecular level. II. A selectionist model for random fixations in proteins, J. Mol. Evol. 7: 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zuckerkandl, E., and Pauling, L., 1962, Molecular disease, evolution, and genie heterogeneity, in: Horizons in Biochemistry ( M. Kasha and N. Pullman, eds.), p. 189, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  97. Zuckerkandl, E., and Pauling, L., 1965, Evolutionary divergence and convergence in proteins, in: Evolving Genes and Proteins ( V. Bryson and H. J. Vogel, eds.), p. 97, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emile Zuckerkandl
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Marine Biological LaboratoryWoods HoleUSA
  2. 2.CNRSParisFrance
  3. 3.Linus Pauling Institute for Science and MedicineMenlo ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations