Significance of mercury in the environment

  • J. G. Saha
Part of the Residue Reviews book series (RECT, volume 42)


Mercury and cinnabar have been known and used by man for nearly three milleniums. Man has used vermillion or cinnabar as a pigment or cosmetic since prehistoric times. The first written account of the use of mercury was by Aristotle in the 4th century B.C. when he mentioned its use in religious ceremonies. The great Arab physicians used mercury compounds as medicine as early as the 6th century B.C. (ENGEL 1967). Mercury compounds were also used as medicine by Dioscorides Pedanius, a Greek physician,in the 1st century B.C. and by Rhazes (852–932), Mesue (925–1015), and Avicenna (980–1037) for the treatment of various skin diseases. Paracelsus (1493–1541), the founder of modern chemotherapy, introduced the use of mercury for the treatment of syphilis. Some mercury compounds, both organic and inorganic, are still being used effectively and safely to treat various infections and disorders.


Mercury Concentration Mercury Level Mercury Vapour Mercury Content Mercury Compound 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, D. C., and J. O’G. Tatton: Pesticide residues in the total diet in England and Wales, 1966–1967. IV. Mercury content of the total diet. Pesticide Sci. 1, 9 (1970)Google Scholar
  2. Abelson, H.: Methylmercury. Science 169, 3942 (1970)Google Scholar
  3. Ahlborg, G., and A. Ahlmark: Alkyl mercury compound poisoning: clinical aspect and risks of exposure. Nord. Med. 41, 503 (1949)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahlmark, A.: Poisoning by methyl mercury compounds. Brit. J. Ind. Med. 5, 117 (1948)Google Scholar
  5. Aho, I.: The occurrence of mercury in Aland pike. Husö Biol. Stat. Medd. no. 13, 5 (1968)Google Scholar
  6. Albanus, L., L. Frankenberg, and A. Sundwall: Mercury poisoning in cat fed with Swedish fresh-water fish. FOA 1 — Report (1970), FAO 1, Fack, S-l72 04 Sungbyberg 4 (1970)Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, A.: Mercury in the soil. Grundforbattring 20, 95 (1967)Google Scholar
  8. Anonymous: Maximum allowable concentration of mercury compounds. Arch. Environ. Health 19, 891 (1969)Google Scholar
  9. Anonymous: Mercury in the environment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 4, 890 (1970)Google Scholar
  10. Armstron, F. A. J.: Personal communication (1971)Google Scholar
  11. Bache, C. A., W. H. Gutenmann, and D. J. Lisk: Residues of total mercury and methylmercuric salts in lake trout as function of age. Science 172, 951 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bahr, G. F., and G. Moberger: Methylmercury chloride as a specific reagent for proteinbound sulfhydryl groups. Expt. Cell Research 6, 506 (1954)Google Scholar
  13. Bailey, E. H., P. D., Snavely, JR., and D. E. White: Chemical analyses of brines and crude oil, Cymric Field, Kern County, California. In: Geological survey research, 1961, short papers in the geologic and hydrologic sciences, articles 293—435. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Papers 424-D, D306 (1961)Google Scholar
  14. Bate, L. C., and F. F. Dyer: Trace elements in human hair. Nucleonics 23, 74 (1965)Google Scholar
  15. Berg, W., A. G. Johnels, B. Sjöstrand, and T. Westermark: Mercury content in feathers of Swedish birds from the past 100 years. Oikos 17, 71 (1966)Google Scholar
  16. Berglund, F., and M. Berlin: Risk of methylmercury cumulation in man and mammals and the relation between body burden of methylmercury and toxic effects. In M. W. Miller and G. G. Berg (eds.): Chemical fallout. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas (1969)Google Scholar
  17. Berglund, F., and A. Wretling: Toxikologisk vardering au kvicksilverhalter i svensk fisk. Var Föda 19,9 (1967)Google Scholar
  18. Berlin, M.: On estimating threshold limits for mercury in biological material. Acta. Med. Scand. Suppl. 396, 1 (1963)Google Scholar
  19. Berlin, M. and S. Ullberg: Accumulation and retention of mercury in the mouse. III. An autoradiographic comparison of methylmercuric dicyandiamide with inorganic mercury. Arch. Environ. Health 6, 610 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Berlin, M., L. G. Jerskell, and G. Nordberg: Accelerated uptake of mercury by brain caused by 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL) after injection into the mouse of a methyl mercuric compound. Acta. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 23, 312 (1965)Google Scholar
  21. Berlin, M., L. G. Jerskell and H. von Ubisch: Uptake and retention of mercury in the mouse brain. Arch. Environ. Health 12,33 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bidstrup, P. L.: Toxicity of mercury and its compounds. Amsterdam: Elsevier (1964)Google Scholar
  23. Birke, G., A. G. Johnels, L. O. Plantin, B. Sjöstrand, and T. Westermark: Mercury poisoning through eating fish? Läkartidningen 64, 3628 (1967)Google Scholar
  24. Bligh, E. G.: Mercury and the contamination of freshwater fish. Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Manuscript Rept. Series No. 1088. Winnipeg, Man. (1970)Google Scholar
  25. Bligh, E. G.: Mercury levels in Canadian fish. Proc. Royal Soc. Canada Internat. Symp. “Mercury in Man’s Environment”. Ottawa (1971)Google Scholar
  26. Bloom, G., K. D. Lundgren, and A. Swensson: Exposure and hazards from organic mercury compounds in connection with seed dressing on small farms. Nord. Hyg. T. 36, 110 (1955)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Borg, K.: The mercury problem as related to the terrestrial fauna, discovery and development. Nord. Hyg. T. 50, 9 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Borg, K., H. Wanntorp, K. Erne, and E. Hanko: Mercury poisoning in Swedish wildlife. J. Applied Ecol., Suppl. 3, p. 171 (1966)Google Scholar
  29. Borg, K., H. Wanntorp, K. Erne, and E. Hanko Alkyl mercury poisoning in terrestrial Swedish wildlife. Viltrevy. Swedish Wildlife 6, 299 (1969)Google Scholar
  30. Borinski, P.: Die Herkunft des Quecksilbers in den Ausscheidungen. Zahnärztliche Rundschau 40, 221 (1931)Google Scholar
  31. Bouveng, H. O., and P. Ullman: Reduction of mercury in waste waters from chlorine plants. Rept. Swedish Water and Air Pollution Research Laboratory (1969)Google Scholar
  32. Brune, D.: Low temperature irradiation applied to neutron activation analysis of mercury in human whole blood. Acta. Chern. Scand. 20, 1200 (1966)Google Scholar
  33. Butt, E. M., and D. G. Simonsen: Mercury and lead storage in human tissues. Amer. J. Clin. Pathol. 20, 716 (1950)Google Scholar
  34. Chau, Y. K.: Personal communication (1971)Google Scholar
  35. Christell, R., L. G. Erwell, K. Ljunggren, B. Sjöstrand, and T. Westermark: Methods of activation analysis for mercury in the biosphere and in foods. Proc. Internat. Conf. “Modern Trends in Activation Analysis”. Dallas, Texas (1965)Google Scholar
  36. Coleman, R. F., F. H. Cripps, A. Stimson, H. D. Scott, and A. W. R. E. Aldermaston: The trace element content of human head hair in England and Wales and the application to forensic science. Atom Monthly Information Bull., U. K. Atomic Energy Authority 123, 12 (1967)Google Scholar
  37. Day, F. H.: The chemical elements in nature. London: Harrap (1963)Google Scholar
  38. Dalgaard-Mikkelsen, S.: The occurrence of mercury in the Danish environment. Nord. Hyg. T. 50, 34 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Derobert, L., and O. Marcus: Intoxikation professionelle par inhalation de composé organique mercurielle antiparasitaire. Ann. Med. Leg. 36, 294 (1956)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dow Chemical Co : Environmental aspect of mercury usage. Midland, Mich. (1970)Google Scholar
  41. Eades, J. F.: Pesticides residues in the Irish environment. Nature 210, 650 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Eastman Kodak Co.: Mercury bibliography (analytical). Rochester, N. Y. (1970)Google Scholar
  43. Edelstam, C., A. G. Johnels, M. Olsson, and T. Westermark: Ecological aspects of the mercury problem. Nord. Hyg. T. 50, 14 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ehmann, W. D., and J. F. Lovering: The abundance of mercury in meteorites and rocks by neutron activation analysis. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 31, 357 (1967)Google Scholar
  45. Ekman, L., U. Greitz, G. Persson, and B. Aberg: Metabolism and retention of methyl-203 mercurynitrite in man. Nord. Med. 79, 450 (1968 a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ekman, L., U. Greitz, A. Magi, J. O. Snihs, and B. Aberg: Distribution of 203Hg in volunteers after administration of methyl-203 mercurynitrite. Nord. Med. 79, 456 (1968 b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ekman, L., B. Aberg, U. Greitz, G. Persson, R. Falk, and J. O. Snihs: Metabolism of 203Hg administered as CH3203 HgCl perorally to man. Nord. Hyg. T. 50, 116 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Engel, G. T.: Mercury. In Kirk-Othmer: Encyclopedia of chemical technology, Second ed., vol. 13. New York: Wiley (1967)Google Scholar
  49. Engelson, G., and T. Herner: Alkylmercury poisoning. Acta. Paediat. Scand. 41,289 (1952)Google Scholar
  50. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization): Production yearbook 1968. Rome (1969)Google Scholar
  51. FAO Working Party on Pesticide Residues and WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues: Pesticide residues in food. WHO Techn. Rept. Series No. 370, FAO Agricultural Studies No. 73. FAO, Rome (1967)Google Scholar
  52. FAO/WHO (World Health Organization): Report 1967 joint meeting FAO Working Party of Experts on Pesticide Residues and WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues. FAO Meeting Rept. No. PL:1967/M/ll, WHO Techn. Rept. Series No. 391. Rome (1968)Google Scholar
  53. Fimreite, N., R. W. Fyfe, and J. A. Keith: Mercury contamination of Canadian Prairie seed eaters and their avian predators. Can. Field-Naturalist 84,269 (1970)Google Scholar
  54. Fiskesjö, G.: Some results from Allium tests with organic mercury halogenides. Hereditas 62,314 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Fiskesjö, G.: The effect of two organic mercury compounds on human leucocytes in vitro. Hereditas 62,142 (1970)Google Scholar
  56. Franke, E., and K. D. Lundgren: Gewerbehygienische Kontrolle bei Herstellung von Alkylquecksilberverbindungen. Arch. Gewerbepath. Gewerbehyg. 15, 186 (1956)Google Scholar
  57. Freyschuss, S., O. Lindström, K. D. Lundgren, and A. Swensson: Occupational investigations in connection with the use of organic mercury compounds at paper mills and export wood pulp factories. Svensk Papperstidning 61, 568 (1958)Google Scholar
  58. Friberg, L.: Aspects of chronic poisoning with inorganic mercury. Nord. Hyg. 32, 240 (1951)Google Scholar
  59. Furukawa, K., T. Suzuki, and K. Tonomura: Decomposition of organic mercurial compounds by mercuryresistant bacteria. Rept. Agr. Biol. Chern. 33, 128 (1969)Google Scholar
  60. Furutani, S., and Y. Osajima: Residual components from agricultural chemicals. II. Mercury in rice. Kyushu Daigaku Nogakubu Gakugei Zasshi 21,363 (1965 a)Google Scholar
  61. Furutani, S., and Y. Osajima: Residual components from agricultural chemicals in food. III. Value of mercury in wheat, some vegetables and paddy field soil. Kyushu Daigaku Nogakubu Gakugei Zasshi 22, 45 (1965 b)Google Scholar
  62. Gage, J. C.: The trace determination of phenyl- and methylmercury salts in biological material. Analyst 86,457 (1961)Google Scholar
  63. Gage, J. C.: Distribution and excretion of methyl and phenyl mercury salts. Brit. Ind. Med. 21, 197 (1964)Google Scholar
  64. Gibbs, O. S., H. Pond, and G. A. Hansman: Toxicological studies on ammoniated mercury. J. Pharmacol. 72, 16 (1941)Google Scholar
  65. Goldwater, L. J.: Occupational exposure to mercury. The Harben lectures. J. Roy. Inst. Public Health 27, 279 (1964)Google Scholar
  66. Goldwater, L. J.: Mercury in the environment. Scient. Amer. 224,15 (1971)Google Scholar
  67. Goldwater, L. J.: A. C. Ladd, P. G. Berkhout, and M. B. Jacobs: Acute exposure to phenylmercuric acetate. J. Occup. Med. 6, 227 (1964 a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Goldwater, L. J.: A. C. Ladd and M. B. Jacobs: Absorption and excretion of mercury in man.VII. Significance of mercury in blood. Arch. Environ. Health 9,735 (1964 b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Grant, N.: Legacy of the mad hatter. Environment 11, 19 (1969)Google Scholar
  70. Gruenwedel, D. W., and N. Davidson: Complexing and denaturation of DNA by methylmercuric hydroxide. I. Spectrophotometric studies. J. Mol. Biol. 21, 129 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gurba, J. B.: Mercury situation in Alberta. Proc. 18th Annual Meeting and Conf., Can. Agr. Chern. Assoc., Jasper, Alta (1970)Google Scholar
  72. Hamaguchi, H., R. Kuroda, and Hosohara: Photometric determination of mercury in sea water. Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 82, 347 (1961)Google Scholar
  73. Hay, W. J., A. G. Rickards, W. H. McMenemey, and J. N. Cumings: Organic mercurial encephalopathy. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 26,199 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hannerz, L.: Experimental investigations on the accumulation of mercury compounds in water organisms. Inst. Fresh Water Research, Drottingholm, Rept. No. 48 (1968)Google Scholar
  75. Hasselrot, T. B.: Which method should be used in tracing mercurial discharge in water and checking effect of measures taken? Nord. Hyg. T. 50, 160 (1969)Google Scholar
  76. Heide, F., H. Lerz, and G. Böhm: Gehalt des Saalewassers an Blei und Quecksilber. Naturwissen. 44, 441 (1957)Google Scholar
  77. Henriksson, K., E. Karppanen, and M. Helminen: The amounts of mercury in seals from lakes and sea. Nord. Hyg. T. 50, 54 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Herner, T.: Poisoning from organic compounds of mercury. Nord. Med. 26, 833 (1945)Google Scholar
  79. Hill, W. H.: A report on two deaths from exposure to the fumes of a di-ethyl mercury. Can. J. Public Health 34, 158 (1943)Google Scholar
  80. Höök, O., K. D. Lundgren, and A. Swensson: On alkylmercury poisoning: with a description of two cases. Acta. Med. Scand. 150, 131 (1954)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hoshino, O., K. Tanzawa, Y. Hasegawa, and T. Ukita: Differences in mercury 0content in the hairs of normal individuals depending on their home environment. J. Hyg. Chern. Soc. Japan 12,90 (1966 a)Google Scholar
  82. Hoshino, O., K. Tanzawa, T. Terao, T. Ukita, and A. Ohuchi: Quantitative determination of mercury in hair by activation analysis. J. Hyg. Chern. Soc. Japan 12,94 (1966 b)Google Scholar
  83. Hosohara, K.: Mercury content of deep sea water. Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 82, 1107 (1961)Google Scholar
  84. Hosohara, K., K. Hirotaka, K. Kawasaki, and T. Tsuruta: Studies on the total amount of mercury in sea waters. Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 82, 1479 (1961)Google Scholar
  85. Hughes, W. L.: Protein mercaptides. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 14, 79 (1949)Google Scholar
  86. Hughes, W. L. A physicochemical rationale for the biological activity of mercury and its compounds. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 65, 454 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hughes, W. L., R. Straessle, H. Edelhoch, and J. T. Edsall: Equilibrium, kinetics, and formation of intermediates in the reaction of human mercaptoalbumin with mercury compounds. Abstracts Papers Presented 118th Meeting Amer. Chern. Soc. (1950)Google Scholar
  88. Hunter, D., R. R. Bomford, and D. S. Russell: Poisoning by methyl mercury compounds. Quart. J. Med. 33, 193 (1940)Google Scholar
  89. Irukayama, K.: The pollution of Minamata bay and Minamata disease. Adv. Water Poll. Research 3, 153 (1966)Google Scholar
  90. Irukayama, K., T. Kondo, F. Kai, and M. Fujiki: Studies on the origin of the causative agent of Minamata disease. III. Industrial wastes containing mercury compounds from Minamata Factory. Kumamoto Med. J. 15, 57 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Irukayama, K., F. Kai, T. Kondo, S. Ushikusa, M. Fujiki, and S. Tajima: Toxicity and metabolism of methyl mercury compounds in animals - especially in relation to Minamata disease. Jap. J. Hyg. 20, 11 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Jacobs, M. B., and L. J. Goldwater: Absorption and excretion of mercury in man. Arch.Environ. Health 11, 582 (1965)Google Scholar
  93. Jalili, M. A., and A. H. Abbasi: Poisoning by ethyl mercury toluene sulphonanilide. Brit. J. Ind. Med. 18,303 (1961)Google Scholar
  94. James, P. E., J. V. Lagerwerff, and R. F. Dudley. Translocation of mercury from seed treatment. Presented Internat. Symp. “Identification and Measurement of Environmental Pollutants”. Ottawa (1971)Google Scholar
  95. Jensen, S., and A. Jernelöv: Biological methylation of mercury in aquatic organisms. Nature 223, 753 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Jernelöv, A.: Laboratory experiments on the conversion of mercury compounds. Vatten 1,53 (1968 a)Google Scholar
  97. Jernelöv, A. Laboratory experiments on the conversion of mercury compounds. Vatten 24, 360 (1968 b)Google Scholar
  98. Jernelöv, A. Laboratory experiments on the conversion of mercury compounds. Vatten 24, 456 (1968 c)Google Scholar
  99. Jernelöv, A. Conversion of mercury compounds. In M. W. Millar and G. G. Berg (eds.): Chemical fallout. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas (1969)Google Scholar
  100. Jervis, R. E., D. Debrum, W. Le Page, and B. Tiefenbach: Mercury residues in Canadian foods, fish, wildlife. National Health Grant Project No. 605–7-510, Univ. Toronto (1970)Google Scholar
  101. Johnels, A. G., M. Olsson, and T. Westermark: Mercury in fish: Investigations on mercury levels in Svedish fish. Var Föda no 7, p. 67 (1967 a)Google Scholar
  102. Johnels, A. G., T. Westermark, W. Berg, P. I. Persson, and B. Sjöstrand: Pike (Esox lucius L.) and some other aquatic organisms in Sweden as indicators of mercury contamination in the environment. Oikos 18, 323 (1967 b)Google Scholar
  103. Johnels, A. G. Mercury and old feathers. Ronden no. 22, p. 255 (1968)Google Scholar
  104. Johnels, A. G., T. Westermark Mercury contamination of the environment in Sweden. In. W. Miller and G. G. Berg (eds.): Chemical fallout, p. 221. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas (1969)Google Scholar
  105. Johnels, A., C. Edelstam, M. Olsson, and T. Westermark: Mercury as an environmental poison in Sweden. Fauna och Flora 63,172 (1968 a)Google Scholar
  106. Johnels, A. G., M. Olsson, and T. Westermark: Esox lucius and some other organisms as indicators of mercury contamination in Swedish lakes and rivers. Bull. Off. Int. Epiz. 69,1439 (1968 b)Google Scholar
  107. Joselow, M. M., L. J. Goldwater, and S. B. Weinberg: Absorption and excretion of mercury in man. XI. Mercury content of “normal” human tissues. Arch. Environ. Health 15, 64 (1967)Google Scholar
  108. Joselow, M. M., R. Ruiz, and L. J. Goldwater: Absorption and excretion of mercury in man. XIV. Salivary excretion of mercury and its relationship to blood and urine mercury. Arch. Environ. Health 17, 35 (1968)Google Scholar
  109. Kanazawa, J., and R. Sato: Determination of residual mercury in rice grains. Residue analysis of organomercuric fungicides sprayed on rice and fruits. Jap. Plant Protect. Assoc. 24, 58 (1965)Google Scholar
  110. Kantarjian, A. D.: A syndrome clinically resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis following chronic mercurialism. Neurology 11,639 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Katsunuma, H., T. Suzuki, S. Nishi, and T. Kashima: Four cases of occupational organic mercury poisoning. Rept. Inst. Sci. Labour 61, 33 (1963)Google Scholar
  112. Kitamura, S., T. Tsukamoto, K. Hayayawa, K. Sumino, and T. Shibata: Application of gas chromatography to the analysis of alkylmercury compounds. Med. Biol. 72, 274 (1966)Google Scholar
  113. Kiwimäe, A., A. Swensson, U. Ulfvarson, and G. Westö: Methylmercury compounds in eggs from hens after oral administration of mercury compounds. J. Agr. Food Chern. 17, 1014 (1969)Google Scholar
  114. Koelsch, F.: Gesundheitsschädigungen durch organische Quecksilberverbindungen. Int. Arch. Gewerbepath. 8, 113 (1937)Google Scholar
  115. Kurland, L.: The outbreak of a neurologic disorder in Minamata, Japan, and its relationship to the ingestion of seafood contaminated by mercuric compounds. World Neurology 1, 370 (1960)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Ljungren, K., and T. Westermark: Method for the detection of mercury by radioactivation analysis. Pure Applied Chern. 1, 127 (1960)Google Scholar
  117. Löfroth, G., and M. E. Duffy: Birds give warning. Environment 11, 10 (1969)Google Scholar
  118. Lundgren, K. D., and A. Swensson: On alkyl mercuric compounds causing occupational illness. Nord. Hyg. T. 29, 1 (1948)Google Scholar
  119. Lundgren, K. D., and A. Swensson: Occupational poisoning by alkylmercury compounds. J. Ind. Hyg. 31, 190 (1949)Google Scholar
  120. Lundgren, K. D., and A. Swensson: A survey of results of investigations on some organic mercury compounds used as fungicides. Amer. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 21, 308 (1960 a)Google Scholar
  121. Lundgren, K. D., and A. Swensson: On the control and protection of workers handling organic mercury compounds. Arh. Hig. Rada. 11, 27 (1960 b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Lundgren, K. D., and A. Swensson and U. Ulfvarson: Studies in humans on the distribution of mercury in the blood and the excretion in urine after exposure to different mercury compounds. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 20, 164 (1967)Google Scholar
  123. Makarova, L. G., and A. N. Nesmeyanov: The organic compounds of mercury. In A. N. Nesmeyanov and K. A. Kocheshkov (eds.): Methods of elemento-organic chemistry, vol. 4. Amsterdam: North-Holland (1967)Google Scholar
  124. Martin, J. T.: Mercury residues in plants. Analyst 88, 413 (1963)Google Scholar
  125. Matsumoto, H., G. Koya, and T. Takeuchi: Fetal Minamata disease. A neuropathological study of two cases in intrauterine intoxication by methyl mercury compound. J. Neuropath. Expt. Neurol. 24, 563 (1965)Google Scholar
  126. Mellor, J. W.: A comprehensive treatise on inorganic and theoretical chemistry. London: Longmans, Green and Co. (1929)Google Scholar
  127. Merewether, E. R. A.: Industrial health. Annual report of the chief inspector of factories for the year 1945. His Majesty’s Stationary Office, London (1946)Google Scholar
  128. Minamata Report. M. Kutsuna (ed.): Minamata disease, study group of Minamata disease. Kumamoto Univ., Japan (1968)Google Scholar
  129. Miskus, R.: DDT. In G. Zweig (ed.): Analytical methods for pesticides, plant growth regulators, and food additives. New York: Academic Press (1964)Google Scholar
  130. Monier-Williams, G. W.: Trace elements in food. London: Chapman & Hall (1949)Google Scholar
  131. Moriya, S., C. Tomizawa, and M. Suwanai: Behavior of phenylmercuric acetate on and in rice plants. Residue analysis of organomercuric fungicides sprayed on rice and fruits. Japan Plant Protection Assoc. (1965)Google Scholar
  132. Neal, P. A.: A study of chronic mercurialism in hatters for cutting industry. U.S. Public Health Service, Bull. 234 (1937)Google Scholar
  133. Neal, P. A.: Mercurialism and its control in the felt-hat industry. U.S. Public Health Service, Bull. c (1941)Google Scholar
  134. Niigata Report: Report on the cases of mercury poisoning in Niigata. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Tokyo (1967)Google Scholar
  135. Noren, K., and G. Westöö: Methylmercury in fish. Var Föda no. 2, p. 13 (1967)Google Scholar
  136. Okinaka, S.,M. Yoshikawa, T. Mozai, Y. Mizuno, T. Terao, H. Watanabe, K. Ogihara, S. Hirai, Y. Yoshino, T. Inose, S. Anzai, and M. Tsuda: encephalomeyelopathy due to an organic mercury compound. Neurology 14, 69 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ordonez, J. V., J. A. Carrilo, M. Miranda, and J. L. Gale: Estudio epidemiologico de una enfermedad considerada como encefalitis en la region de los altos de Guatemala. Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Pan americana 60, 510 (1966)Google Scholar
  138. Ostlund, K.: Studies on the metabolism of methyl mercury and dimethyl mercury in mice. Acta Pharmacol. 27 (Suppl. 1), 1 (1969)Google Scholar
  139. Ozerova, N. A.: Primary dispersion halos of mercury. Moscow: Academy of Sciences USSR (1962)Google Scholar
  140. Partington, J. R.: A history of chemistry, Vol. 3. London: MacMillan (1962)Google Scholar
  141. Passow, H., A. Rothstein, and T. W. Clarkson: The general pharmacology of heavy metals. Pharmacol. Rev. 13, 1885 (1961)Google Scholar
  142. Perksons, A. K., and R. E. Jervis: Hair individualization studies. Proc. 1965 Internat. Conf. “Modern Trends in Activation Analysis”. Texas A and M Univ., p.295 (1965)Google Scholar
  143. Pesticide Amendments to Hazardous Substances Act. Hearings before Senate Subcommittee on S. 3866, p. 59. Serial 91—97. U.S. Govt. Printing Office (1970)Google Scholar
  144. Polley, D., and V. L. Millar: Fungicide analysis. Direct determination of methylmercuric dicyandiamide. J. Agr. Food Chern. 2, 1030 (1954)Google Scholar
  145. Prick, J. J. G., A. E. H. Sonnen, and J. L. Slooff: Organic mercury poisoning. I. Proc. Koninklijke Nederlandse Academic van Wetenschappen 70,150 (1967 a)Google Scholar
  146. Prick, J. J. G., A. E. H. Sonnen, and J. L. Slooff: Organic mercury poisoning. II. Proc. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 70, 170 (1967 b)Google Scholar
  147. Raeder, M. G., and E. Snekvik: Quecksilbergehalt mariner Organismen. Kgl. Norske Videnskab. Selskabs Forhandl. 13, 169 (1941)Google Scholar
  148. Ramel, C.: Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds. I. Cytological investigations on allium roots. Hereditas 61, 208 (1969 a)Google Scholar
  149. Ramel, C. Methylmercury as a mitosis disturbing agent. J. Jap. Med. Assoc. 61, 1072 (1969 b)Google Scholar
  150. Ramel, C., and Magnusson: Genetic effects of organic mercury compounds. II. Chromosome segregation in Drosophila melanogaster. Hereditas 61, 231 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Rankama, K., and Th. G. Sahama: Geochemistry. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press (1950)Google Scholar
  152. Rissanen, K.: Retention and distribution of mercury in cat. In: Swedish-Finnish mercury symposium. Helsinki, Nov. (1969); [Published by Dept. of Radiochemistry, Univ. Helsinki (1969)]Google Scholar
  153. Rucker, R. R.: Effects of mercurial compounds on fish and humans. Bull. Office Int. Epizoot. 69, 1431 (1968)Google Scholar
  154. Saha, J. G., Y. W. Lee, R. D. Tinline, S. H. F. Chinn, and H. M. Austenson: Mercury residues in cereal grains from seeds or soil treated with organomercury compounds. Can. J. Plant Sci. 50, 597 (1970)Google Scholar
  155. Saha, J. G., A. K. Sumner, and F. M. Atton: Unpublished results (1971)Google Scholar
  156. Saito, M., T. Osono, J. Watanabe, T. Yamatoto, M. Takeuchi, Y. Ohyagi, and H. Katsunuma: Studies on Minamata disease. Establishment of the criterion for etiological research in mice. Jap. J. Exp. Med. 31, 277 (1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Sato, H: A consideration on organic mercury poisoning. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Dnr Fr 2346/68 (1968)Google Scholar
  158. Saukov, A. A.: Geokhimiya rtuti (Geochemistry of mercury). Tr. Inst. Geol. Nauk, Akad. Nauk SSSR, 78, Min-Geokhim. Ser. No. 17, p. 1 (1946)Google Scholar
  159. Seiffert, P., and H. Neudert: Zur Frage der gewerblichen Quecksilber-Vergiftung. Zbl. Arbeitsmed. 4, 129 (1954)Google Scholar
  160. Sjostrand, B.: Simultaneous determination of mercury and arsenic in biological and organic materials by activation analysis. Anal. Chern. 34, 814 (1964)Google Scholar
  161. Skerfving, S., A. Hansson, and J. Lindsten: Chromosome breakage in human subjects exposed to methyl mercury through fish consumption. Arch. Environ. Health 21, 133 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Slatov, L. V., and Z. L. Zimnikova: Certain clinical features of acute poisoning by ethylmercuric chloride. Gig. Sanit. 33, 275 (1968)Google Scholar
  163. Smart, N. A.: Use and residues of mercury compounds in agriculture. Residue Reviews 23, 1 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Smith, R. G.: Studies of workers exposed to mercury in the chlorine industry. Working paper to the symposium on MAC values in Stockholm (1968)Google Scholar
  165. Somers, E.: Heavy metals in foods. Proc. Royal Soc. Canada Internat. Symp. “Mercury in Man’s Environment”. Ottawa (1971)Google Scholar
  166. Souder, W., and W. T. Sweeney: Is mercury poisonous in dental amalgam restorations? The Dental Cosmos 73, 1145 (1931)Google Scholar
  167. Stahl, Q. R.: Preliminary air pollution survey of mercury and its compounds: A literature review. APTD-69–40. Nat. Air Pollution Control Admin., Durham, N. C. (1969)Google Scholar
  168. Stock, A.: Die Gefährlichkeit des Quecksilberdampfes und der Amalgame. Med. Klinik 22, 1209 (1926)Google Scholar
  169. Stock, A. Die Gefahrlichkeit des Quecksilbers und der Amalgam-Zahnfüllungen. Z. Angew. Chern. 41, 662 (1928)Google Scholar
  170. Stock, A. Die chronische Quecksilber- und Amalgamvergiftung. Arch. Gewerbepath. 7, 388 (1936)Google Scholar
  171. Stock, A. Der Quecksilbergehalt des menschlichen Organismus. Mitteilung iiber Wirkung und Verbrei tung des Quecksilbers. Biochem. Zschr. 304, 73 (1940)Google Scholar
  172. Stock, A., and F. Cucuel: Die Verbreitung des Quecksilbers. Naturwiss. 22, 390 (1934 a)Google Scholar
  173. Stock, A., and F. Cucuel: Die Bestimmung des Quecksilber-Gehaltes der Luft. Ber. eutsch. Chern. Ges. 67, 122 (1934 b)Google Scholar
  174. Stock, A., and F. Cucuel: Der Quecksilbergehalt der menschlichen Ausscheidungen und des mensch lichen Blutes. Z. Angew. Chemie 47, 641 (1934 c)Google Scholar
  175. Storrs, B., J. Thompson, G. Fair, M. S. Dickerson, L. Nickey, W. Barthel, and J. E. Spaulding: Organic mercury poisoning. Morbidity and Mortality 19,25 (1970 a)Google Scholar
  176. Storrs, B., J. Thompson, L. Nickey, W. Barthel, and J. E. Spaulding: Follow-up organic mercury poisoning. Morbidity and Mortality 19, 169 (1970 b)Google Scholar
  177. Sumari, P., A. L. Backman, P. Karly, and A. Lahti: Health studies of Finnish consumers of fish. Nord. Hyg. T. 50,97 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Sumino, K.: Analysis of organic mercury compounds by gas chromatography. Part I. Analytical and extraction method of organic mercury compounds. Kobe J. Med. Sci. 14, 115 (1968 a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Analysis of organic mercury compounds by gas chromatography. Part II. Determination of organic mercury compounds in various samples. Kobe J. Med. Sci. 14, 131 (1968 b)Google Scholar
  180. Sumner, A. K., and J. G. Saha: Unpublished results (1971)Google Scholar
  181. Sumner, A. K., and J. G. Saha, and F. M. Atton: Unpublished results (1971)Google Scholar
  182. Suzuki, T., T. Miyama, and H. Katsunuma: Comparative study of bodily distribution of mercury in mice after subcutaneous administration of methyl, ethyl, and n-propyl mercury acetates. Jap. J. Expt. Med. 33, 277 (1963)Google Scholar
  183. Suzuki, T., and K. Yoshino: Effects of d-penicillamine on urinary excretion of mercury in two cases of methylmercury poisoning. Ind. Med. 11, 21 (1969)Google Scholar
  184. Swensson, A.: Investigations on the toxicity of some organic mercury compounds which are used as seed disinfectants. Acta Med. Scand. 143, 365 (1952)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Swensson, A., and U. Ulfvarson: Distribution and excretion of mercury compounds in rats over a long period after a single injection. Acta Pharmacol. 26, 273 (1968)Google Scholar
  186. Takeuchi, T.: A pathological study of Minamata disease in Japan. Proc. VII Internat. Congress Neurol. Rome (1961)Google Scholar
  187. Takeuchi, T., N. Morikawa, H. Matsumoto, and Y. Shiraishi: A pathological study of Minamata disease in Japan. Acta Neuropathol. 2, 40 (1962)Google Scholar
  188. Takizawa, Y.: Studies on the Niigata episode of Minamata disease outbreak – investigation of causative agents of organic mercury poisoning in the district along the river Agano. Acta Med. Biol. 17, 293 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Takizawa, Y., and T. Kosaka: Erforschung der Vrsache von Vergiftungserscheinungen an organischem Quecksilber, welche in der Niigata-Pdifektur entlang des Agano-Flusses aufgetreten sind. Acta Med. Biol. 14, 153 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Tatton, J. O. G., and P. J. Wagstaffe: Identification and determination of organomercurial fungicide residues by thin-layer and gas chromatography. J. Chromatog. 44, 284 (1969)Google Scholar
  191. Tejning, S.: Mercury in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus L.) deriving from seed grain dressed with methyl and ethyl mercury compounds. Oikos 18, 334 (1967 a)Google Scholar
  192. Tejning, S.:Mercury contents in blood corpuscles and blood plasma in persons, who consumed an average of less than one meal of commercial saltwater-fish per week. Report 670206, Dept. Occupat. Med., Univ. Hospital, Lund (1967 b)Google Scholar
  193. Tejning, S.: Mercury contents in blood corpuscles, blood plasma and hair in persons who had for long periods a high consumption of freshwater-fish from Lake vaner. Report 670831, Dept. Occup. Med., Vniv. Hospital, S-22185 Lund (1967 c)Google Scholar
  194. Tejning, S.: Mercury contents in blood corpuscles and in blood plasma in persons consuming large quantities of commercially sold saltwater fish. Report 680529, Dept. Occupat. Med., Univ. Hospital, S-22185 Lund (1968)Google Scholar
  195. Teng, C. T., and J. C. Brennan: Acute mercury vapour poisoning: A report of four cases with radiographic and pathologic correlation. Radiology 73, 354 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Tonomura, K., and F. Kanzaki: The reductive decomposition of organic mercurials by cell-free extract of a mercury-resistant pseudomonas. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 184, 227 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Tsuda, M., S. Anzai, and M. Sakai: Organic mercury poisoning - a case report. Yokohama Med. Bull. 14,287 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Tunell, G.: Mercury. In K. H. Wedepohl (ed.): Handbook of geochemistry, Vol. 2. New York: Springer-Verlag (1970)Google Scholar
  199. Turekian, K. K., and K. H. Wedepohl: Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 72, 175 (1961)Google Scholar
  200. Ur, J., and S. Kitamura: Mercury pollution of sea and fresh water. Its accumulation into water biomass. Report to WHO, Stencils (1969)Google Scholar
  201. Ukita, T., O. Hoshino, and K. Tanzawa: Determination of mercury in urine, blood and hair of man in organic mercurial poisonings. J. Hyg. Chern. 9, 138 (1963)Google Scholar
  202. Ulfvarson, U.: Distribution and excretion of some mercury compounds after long term exposure. Internat. Arch. Gewerbepath. 19,412 (1962)Google Scholar
  203. Ulfvarson, U.:The effect of the size of the dose on the distribution and excretion of mercury in rats after single intravenous injection of various mercury compounds. Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol. 15, 1 (1969)Google Scholar
  204. Ulfvarson, U.:Transportation of mercury in animals. Studia Labris et Salutis, No.6 (1970)Google Scholar
  205. Umeda, M., K. Saito, K. Hirose, and M. Saito: Cytotoxic effect of inorganic phenyl and alkyl mercuric compounds on HeLa cells. J. Exp. Med. 39, 47 (1969)Google Scholar
  206. Underdal, B.: Studies of mercury in some food stuffs. Nord. Hyg. T. 50, 60 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Warren, H. V., R. E. Delavault, and J. Barakso: Some observations on the geochemistry of mercury as applied to prospecting. Econ. Geol. 61, 1010 (1966)Google Scholar
  208. Weast, R. C. (ed.): Handbook of „emistry and physics, 49th ed. Cleveland, Ohio: Chemical Rubber Co. (1968)Google Scholar
  209. West, J. M.: Mercury. In: Minerals year book 1968, vol. I-II. V.S. Govt. Printing Office (1969)Google Scholar
  210. Westermark, T.: Mercury in aquatic organisms. In: The mercury problem in Sweden. Stockholm: Royal Swedish Ministry of Agriculture (1965)Google Scholar
  211. Westöö, G.: Mercury in foodstuffs — is there a great risk of poisoning? Var Föda No.4, p.1 (1965)Google Scholar
  212. Westöö, G.: Determination of methylmercury compounds in foodstuffs. I. Methylmercury compounds in fish, identification and determination. Acta Chem. Scand. 20, 2131 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Westöö, G.: Determination of methylmercury compounds in foodstuffs. II. Determination of methylmercury in fish, egg, meat, and liver. Acta Chem. Scand. 21, 1790 (1967 b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Westöö, G.: Total mercury in fish. Var F6da No.1, p. 1 (1967 c)Google Scholar
  215. Westöö, G.: Methylmercury compounds in fish. Oikos Suppl. 9, 11 (1967 d)Google Scholar
  216. Westöö, G.: Determination of methylmercury salts in various kinds of biological material. Acta Chem. Scand. 22, 2277 (1968)Google Scholar
  217. Westöö, G.: Methylmercury compounds in animal foods. In M. W. Millar and G. G. Berg (eds.): Chemical fallout, p. 75. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas (1969 a)Google Scholar
  218. Westöö, G.: Mercury compounds in animal foods. Nord. Hyg. T. 50, 67 (1969 b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Westöö, G.: Personal communication (1971)Google Scholar
  220. Westöö, G.:, and M. Rydälv: Mercury and methylmercury in fish and crayfish. Var Föda No.3, p. 19 (1969)Google Scholar
  221. WHO (World Health Organization): Meeting of investigators for the international study of normal values for toxic substances in the human body. WHO/Occupat. Health/66.39, Geneva (1966)Google Scholar
  222. Wilkening, H., and S. Litzner: Ober Erkrankungen insbesondere der Niere durch AlkylQuecksilberverbindungen. Dtsch. Med. Wschr. 77, 432 (1952)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Williston, S. H.: Mercury in the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Research 73, 7051 (1968)Google Scholar
  224. Wobeser, G., N. O. Nielsen, R. H. Dunlop, and F. M. Atton: Mercury concentrations in tissues of fish from the Saskatchewan River. J. Fisheries Research Board of Canada 27, 830 (1970)Google Scholar
  225. Yamaguchi, S., and H. Matsumoto: Diagnostic significance of the amount of mercury in hair. Proc. 15th Internat. Congress Occupat. Health, Vienna. P. 255 (1966)Google Scholar
  226. Yamashita, M.: Distribution in organs and excretion of mercury on some experimental organic mercury compounds poisoning. J. Jap. Soc. Int. Med. 53, 529 (1964)Google Scholar
  227. Yoshino, Y., T. Mozai, and K. Nakao: Distribution of mercury in the brain and in its subcellular units in experimental organic mercury poisonings. J. Neurochem. 13, 397 (1966)Google Scholar
  228. Zeyer Ramel, C., H. G.: Methoxathylquecksilberoxalvergiftung. Zbl. Arbeitsmed. 2, 68 (1952)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. G. Saha
    • 1
  1. 1.Contribution No.446, Canada Agriculture Research StationUniversity CampusSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations